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About this book

This path-breaking new textbook provides a broad overview of the core concepts, actors and activities involved in building security and justice after conflict, as well as challenges and lessons learned in this field. Drawing attention to the principles which guide – or should guide – this kind of work, as well as using practical examples throughout, the book covers a uniquely wide range of issues in peacebuilding – from transitional justice and disarmament to security sector reform and human rights. It concludes by considering both the regional and more far-reaching impacts of conflict, including such global phenomena as terrorism, piracy and organised crime.
With a decade of experience working in post-conflict zones for the UN and other organisations, and a further ten years in academia and as a consultant for various international organisations, the author’s unparalleled expertise on the topic and her accessible writing style make this book the essential guide to postgraduate and upper-level undergraduate courses on peace and conflict studies. The text is also important supplemental reading for those studying war, peace, development, security or IR in a wider context and for practitioners and policy-makers in the field of peacebuilding.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Concepts of Security, Conflict and Peace

Abstract
The opening Chapter introduces some of the core concepts commonly used in peacebuilding. It begins by presenting various ways of visualising the different stages of conflict, before reflecting upon the concepts of security and peacebuilding. To provide a context for subsequent chapters, there follows a brief discussion on ways in which to resolve armed conflict and build peace beyond those efforts squarely within the security and justice sector.
Eleanor Gordon

2. Causes of Conflict and Conflict Prevention

Abstract
This Chapter discusses the causes of conflict in recognition of the fact that successful peacebuilding and conflict prevention depend upon acknowledging and addressing perceived causal factors. Various theories of the causes of conflict will be considered and a number of factors presented which can contribute to the outbreak and escalation of conflict. The Chapter then considers ways in which to prevent conflict, to avoid the loss of countless lives and huge investment of resources in conflict resolution and peacebuilding. Conflict prevention tools are discussed alongside challenges and limitations that continue to hamper preventive efforts.
Eleanor Gordon

3. Building a Safe and Secure Environment

Abstract
This Chapter initially considers the importance of security in building peace. It looks specifically at the task of creating and maintaining a safe and secure environment, without which all the other tasks required to build a sustainable peace will be more difficult, if not actually impossible. The Chapter provides an overview of the, predominantly, international military actors and activities involved in building security in the immediate aftermath of conflict, and the role of international military forces in post-conflict recovery. The Chapter concludes by identifying some of the challenges in the way of building security after conflict, and discussing whether, and if so how, such challenges may be satisfactorily addressed.
Eleanor Gordon

4. Promoting the Rule of Law

Abstract
This Chapter discusses the importance generally accorded to establishing the rule of law in places emerging from conflict, and examines the relationship between security and the rule of law. It also discusses some of the actors typically seen as advancing the rule of law in post-conflict environments, including the UN Police, and domestic security and justice actors, including state and non-state actors and mechanisms. The Chapter concludes by reflecting upon challenges faced and recommendations for improving the record of rule of law initiatives in post-conflict environments. Later Chapters will consider the reform of security and justice sector institutions and transitional justice. More than most of the concepts discussed in this book, the rule of law is contested in its definitions, and even its very utility as a concept. The Chapter begins, therefore, with a discussion of the concept of ‘the rule of law’ and how it is understood by some of the actors engaged in this field.
Eleanor Gordon

5. Transitional Justice

Abstract
The concept usually known as ‘transitional justice’ has arisen, slowly and erratically, over the last quarter of a century, to find now a prominent place in post-conflict transformation. It is often presented as a means whereby post-conflict societies can address atrocities committed in war. This Chapter considers the definition of transitional justice and its historical origins. It addresses the advertised objectives of transitional justice and outlines the key transitional justice mechanisms that are available, including truth-seeking processes, prosecution initiatives, reparations, institutional reform and memorialisation. The concluding section details some of the challenges and dilemmas in the field of transitional justice, with specific reference to what is often called the ‘peace versus justice’ debate.
Eleanor Gordon

6. Mine Action and the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons

Abstract
In post-conflict environments, the prevalence of mines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) as well as the widespread availability and misuse of small arms and light weapons (SALW) pose many security risks and can hinder efforts to build a meaningful and lasting peace. This Chapter considers the challenges presented by the prevalence of mines and ERW as well as SALW, and ways in which these challenges can be addressed. The first part of this Chapter considers mines and ERW, beginning with the nature and extent of their threat and the wider impact on post-conflict recovery and development. The Chapter then looks at the actors and activities involved in mine action, including mine clearance (or demining), mine risk education, victim assistance, advocacy and stockpile destruction. The international legal tools will also be reviewed before considering ways to address the challenges posed by mines and ERW. The second part of this Chapter considers the ways in which the presence of SALW in post-conflict environments undermines security and the rule of law, as well as ways in which to promote reconciliation, protect human rights, and facilitate good governance and socio-economic development. After exploring the threat of SALW, the Chapter looks at some of the fundamental developments in SALW control as well as some of the key components and principles of SALW control programmes, concluding by considering ways in which to address the challenges posed by SALW in post-conflict environments.
Eleanor Gordon

7. Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration

Abstract
Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of former combatants is an increasingly key feature of peacebuilding efforts, the success of which depends upon whether DDR efforts are effective and their results sustainable. This Chapter considers the concept of DDR and ways in which DDR has changed over recent years. DDR objectives and key actors will also be looked at, before considering some fundamental issues – including the importance of attending to the specific needs of children, women and other vulnerable groups, and the importance of integrating DDR programmes with other peacebuilding efforts, particularly Security Sector Reform (SSR), Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) control, community safety, transitional justice and reconciliation. The Chapter concludes by considering some of the overarching challenges in the field of DDR and recommendations to overcome some of these challenges.
Eleanor Gordon

8. Security Sector Reform

Abstract
It is frequently argued that key to securing peace, stability and development is an effective, efficient and fair security and justice sector. In recognition of this, comprehensive Security Sector Reform (SSR) programmes are often implemented in post-conflict societies where some or all these characteristics are considered to be missing. This Chapter, which covers a number of related subjects and is necessarily relatively lengthy, takes an in-depth look at the core features of SSR, alongside the roles of the different actors involved and challenges faced. The Chapter will provide brief overviews of Justice Sector Reform, Police Reform, Penal Reform and Defence Reform, before discussing Security Sector Governance (SSG), which lies at the heart of SSR. A discussion of challenges, lessons learnt and best practices will conclude the Chapter
Eleanor Gordon

9. Human Rights, Security and Justice

Abstract
This Chapter considers the often complex relationship between human rights and armed conflict, looking at human rights violations as causes and consequences of armed conflict, alongside the prevalence of human rights violations in conflict-affected environments. The Chapter opens by critically engaging with the concept of human rights. The next part looks more closely at human rights work in post-conflict environments, by providing a brief overview of the relevant activities and actors. The section concludes by referring to some of the challenges faced in this field and ways in which they might be overcome. The final part of the Chapter briefly reflects upon which groups of people may be more vulnerable to human rights violations, with a particular focus on children.
Eleanor Gordon

10. Gender, Security and Justice

Abstract
This Chapter considers the gender dynamics of conflict and peacebuilding, particularly efforts to rebuild security and justice after conflict. Of course, it has been recognised that the involvement of women and men in conflict and its effects on them are different, but this Chapter explains why the subject has recently assumed a much higher profile and how in turn this has translated into doctrine and practice of post-conflict operations.
Eleanor Gordon

11. Countering Transnational Security Threats: Terrorism, Piracy and Organised Crime

Abstract
This Chapter addresses some of the international security threats perceived to be associated with conflict-affected or conflict-vulnerable countries. It considers the impact of conflict-affected countries on the stability of neighbouring and regional countries, as well as on countries further afield, notably through such phenomena as terrorism, piracy, and cross-border and organised crime. In each case, it looks at the effects of the threats, efforts to overcome them and the links with conflict.
Eleanor Gordon
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