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About this book

Europe's traditional problem of war between states is being displaced by a new and equally daunting set of security challenges. While major war within Europe remains unlikely, the 2008 Georgia war and the 2011 Libya war were reminders that violent conflicts are still prevalent on Europe's periphery and can pose major challenges for European governments, NATO and the EU. At the same time, terrorism, nuclear proliferation as well as non-military problems like mass migration and climate change threaten Europe's security.

Fully revised and updated, the second edition of this leading text provides a systematic assessment of security in contemporary Europe. The book examines the changing character of security and assesses the extent of the threats posed by different challenges, as well as the policy dilemmas involved in responding to these concerns.

The nature of security in Europe has been transformed in recent years. Andrew Cottey argues that this is a result of two key developments: the emergence of a security community – a zone of peace where war is inconceivable across much of Europe – and the presence of new security threats such as terrorism and energy dependence. Set in the context of the rising power of non-Western states and the continuing fall-out from the global economic crisis, this text provides a comprehensive analysis of Europe's new security challenges.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Abstract
Since the mid-1980s three dramatic turning points have triggered major transformations in the international political order: the end of the Cold War in 1989, the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001 and the global financial and economic crisis in 2008. This book examines European security since the end of the Cold War, exploring the ways in which these three turning points have altered the European security agenda and the policy challenges facing states, societies and international security institutions, in particular the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). From the late 1940s to the late 1980s, the European security agenda was defined by the Cold War division of the continent and the challenges of defence, deterrence and crisis management between East and West. The dramatic and unexpected collapse of the Eastern European communist regimes in 1989 brought this era to an end. Suddenly, governments faced the challenge of constructing a new post-Cold War European security and responding to violent conflict in post-communist Europe, in particular the wars in former Yugoslavia. A decade later the 9/11 terrorist attacks ushered in a second new era: globalized Islamic terrorism moved to the centre of the security agenda and the USA initiated two major wars — in Afghanistan and Iraq — the repercussions of which are still being felt.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 1. Security in 21st Century Europe

Abstract
This chapter explores the nature of security in early 21st century Europe. The first section examines what we mean by security, highlighting the contested nature of the concept, the difficulty of assessing threats to security, and the inherent security policy dilemmas commonly faced by governments. The rest of the chapter addresses the changing character of security in contemporary Europe. The central argument presented here, and one of the core theses of this book, is that the emergence of a security community, a zone of peace where war is inconceivable, has fundamentally transformed Europe. This security community emerged in Western Europe after the Second World War and has expanded to include much of Central and Eastern Europe since the end of the Cold War. Since the emergence of the modern nation-state system, the central problem of European security has been the risk of war, in particular of continent-wide great power war. The ever-present risk of war and the associated insecurity of states have also driven much of Europe’s international politics, resulting in a system of balance of power politics and competing alliances.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 2. The New Global Security Agenda

Abstract
This chapter explores the emerging global security environment and agenda of the early 21st century. It argues that the international political order of the early 21st century is defined by a number of features: a broadly Western, liberal international order, but one challenged by a variety of countervailing forces; a historic shift in the balance of global power, driven by the rise of major non-Western powers such as China and India (a process accelerated by the global economic crisis since 2008); and the low likelihood of classical great power war. Within this context, the new global security agenda is defined by a number of more specific security challenges (United Nations, 2004; Brown, 2003):
  • New wars: a shift in patterns of warfare from international wars to internal conflicts that nevertheless have significant regional and international repercussions.
  • Proliferation: the prospect that a growing range of states, and potentially non-state actors, in particular terrorist groups, may obtain nuclear, biological or chemical weapons of mass destruction.
  • The new terrorism: the emergence of radical Islamic terrorist groups, in particular al-Qaeda, engaged in a global struggle against the West, especially the USA, and willing to use terrorist violence on a scale not seen previously.
  • Non-military security threats: an increasing recognition that non-military problems — poverty and economic instability, environmental change and degradation such as climate change, energy security, mass population movements, diseases such as HIV/AIDS, transnational crime and the protection of critical economic and technological infrastructures — may pose central challenges to human security and cannot be separated from the more traditional security problems of warfare and military security.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 3. The Transatlantic Relationship and NATO: The End of an Era?

Abstract
Ever since the Second World War, the USA has played a central role in European security. After having come to Europe’s rescue twice in less than half a century in the two World Wars, in the context of the Cold War the USA established a semi-permanent alliance with Europe, institutionalized in the form of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and a large US military presence deployed in Europe. For the four decades of the Cold War, NATO and the relationship with the USA were the bedrock of European security, at least for Western Europe. The end of the Cold War thus raised fundamental questions about whether NATO and the post-Second World War transatlantic relation would survive. Although the relationship with the USA has often been controversial and some in Europe advocate an EU foreign, security and defence policy based on independence from America, since the end of the Cold War there has been quite a strong consensus, in both Western Europe and the United States, in favour of maintaining transatlantic co-operation and NATO.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 4. The EU and the Europeanization of European Security

Abstract
In the 1990s and 2000s the European Union (EU) assumed an increasingly prominent role in European security affairs, as well as a growing but more limited role in responding to the new global security agenda. With a majority of member states also adopting a new single currency (the euro) and joining the new Schengen border-free zone, an increasingly integrated European Union with a growing role in the world seemed to be emerging. Under the Maastricht Treaty (provisionally agreed in 1991, signed in 1992 and entering into force in 1993), the EU’s member states committed themselves to the establishment of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and co-operation in internal security or what the EU refers to as Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). During the 1990s, the CFSP was given substance through the development of a series of new policies and institutions directed towards the EU’s immediate neighbours in Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans, the former Soviet Union and the Mediterranean. Within this context, the EU in many ways assumed the central role in efforts to promote stability and security in the wider Europe. At the end of the 1990s, the EU also agreed to establish a common European defence policy, putting in place new political and military institutions for collective military operations.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 5. Russia: Insider/Outsider in European Security

Abstract
The end of the Cold War, the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the collapse of communism in 1989–91 raised major questions about Russia’s place in the world and its relations with the rest of Europe, the West more broadly, and its neighbours in the former Soviet Union. For the forty years or so since the onset of the Cold War, and arguably the seventy-odd years since the 1917 revolution, the Soviet Union/Russia had been the defining external security threat for the West. For the Soviet Union, the combination of ideology and geopolitics made confrontation with the West, especially the USA, the defining feature of its foreign relations. With the demise of the Soviet Union, some observers in both Moscow and Western capitals hoped for the development of a close partnership between Russia and the West, and even that a democratic Russia might become a full part of the West. Within Russia, however, others argued that their country had a distinctive Eurasian identity and specific national interests of its own, and must re-assert its independence from the West and its influence in the former Soviet Union. In the West, some argued that Russia was still far from a democracy, that Russian and Western interests were likely to collide, and that, in the worst case, the collapse of communism might produce a hyper-nationalist ‘Weimar Russia’.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 6. The New Wars and the New Interventionism

Abstract
From the Yugoslav conflict of the 1990s, through the US-led wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in the 2000s, to NATO’s intervention in Libya in 2011, military intervention has been one of the most controversial security issues of the contemporary era. The patterns of military intervention that have emerged since the 1990s, both in Europe and globally, reflect the new strategic environment explored in Chapters 1 and 2. The emergence of a security community has made war unlikely in much of Europe, while direct military threats to that security community are limited. Beyond the Western security community, however, a variety of factors have contributed to the prevalence of civil wars and failed states (the so-called new wars), while major regional wars remain real possibilities in places such as the Middle East, India-Pakistan and the Korean peninsula, and a major war drawing in great powers, in particular the USA, China and Japan, remains conceivable in East Asia. In this new strategic environment, European states are most likely to use military force not to defend their national territory or in a major European war, but rather to intervene in new wars on Europe’s periphery or beyond, or in the context of major conflicts elsewhere in the world.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 7. Proliferation

Abstract
Since the early 1990s, the threat posed by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) has moved to the centre of the global security agenda. As discussed in Chapter 2, the increasing prominence of proliferation reflects two factors. First, the end of the Cold War dramatically reduced the risk of nuclear war between the USA and Russia, effectively bringing the first part of the nuclear age to an end. Second, India’s and Pakistan’s 1998 nuclear weapons tests, the 2003 Iraq War and the controversy surrounding Iraq’s WMD programmes, North Korea’s 2006 and 2009 nuclear tests, Iran’s ongoing efforts to develop nuclear weapons, and fears, following 9/11, that terrorist groups might obtain WMD, suggested that the world was on the verge of a major new wave of proliferation. This might in particular expand the number of nuclear weapon states significantly, and place nuclear or other WMD in the hands of terrorists.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 8. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism

Abstract
In the space of two months between September and November 2010 French security services were put on high alert and the Eiffel tower was evacuated because of fears of a planned terrorist attack; a cargo plane bound for the USA was discovered — at Britain’s East Midlands airport — to contain a parcel bomb posted in Yemen; a suicide bomb attack in the Turkish capital Istanbul injured at least 32 people; the Greek authorities intercepted parcel bombings sent to diplomatic missions and the Greek parliament by left-wing extremists; and Germany boosted security at airports, railway stations and major tourist attractions in response to ‘concrete indications’ of a planned terrorist attack by Islamic extremists. Although there may have been particular factors which resulted in an increased threat from globalized Islamic terrorism at this point (International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2010b), these various events indicate the reality of the ongoing threat posed to Europe by terrorism.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 9. Non-Military Security

Abstract
As discussed in Chapter 2, there has since the 1980s been a growing recognition that non-military threats should be viewed as part of the security agenda. This redefinition of the concept of security has two elements. First, it is increasingly recognized that while military means are central to war, the underlying causes of war and largescale violent conflict are largely non-military, relating to political conflicts, economics and the environment.
Andrew Cottey

Chapter 10. Conclusion

Abstract
This book has examined security in Europe since the end of the Cold War and European responses to the new global security agenda. Its central thesis is that the nature of security within Europe has been transformed fundamentally by the development of a security community — a zone of peace where war is inconceivable and states no longer prepare for war against one another — that now covers all of Western, and much of Central and Eastern, Europe. The emergence of this security community has dramatically reduced the likelihood of great power war in Europe and moved much of the continent beyond its historic pattern of great power security competition, balance of power politics and rival alliances. Although there were significant international disputes within the European security community in the 1990s and the 2000s — over the future direction of the EU, over the Yugoslav conflict in the 1990s and in relation to the 2003 Iraq War — these did not give rise to the type of old-fashioned, action—reaction competitive security dynamics between states that might fundamentally undermine the security community.
Andrew Cottey
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