Formed in 1963, the Federation of Malaysia comprises the long peninsular land mass which separates the Indian Ocean from the South China Sea, together with the northern quarter of Borneo but excluding the small state of Brunei. Peninsular Malaysia, covering 131,794 square kilometres, is made up of eleven states: Perlis, Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor (with the Federal Capital Territory of Kuala Lumpur), Melaka, Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Trengganu and Kelantan. The island of Singapore, part of Malaysia between 1963 and 1965, is now independent. The Borneo territories, Sabah (formerly British North Borneo) and Sarawak, together cover roughly 198,000 square kilometres, but are separated at the closest point from the peninsula by over 650 kilometres. Kota Kinabalu (previously Jesselton), the capital of Sabah, is 864 kilometres from Kuching (Sarawak’s capital) and more than 1,600 kilometres from Kuala Lumpur.
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- Introduction: The Environment and Peoples of Malaysia
Barbara Watson Andaya
Leonard Y. Andaya
- Macmillan Education UK
- Sequence number