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About this book

The hotly awaited second edition of this bestselling introductory textbook provides a truly comprehensive and accessible guide to international affairs. Bringing together the combined decades of experience in researching and teaching global politics of three acclaimed scholars, this text introduces students to what is happening in our complex and rapidly changing world as well as how to analyse those events. Pedagogically driven, the book is structured around enduring questions that reflect the key concepts in world politics. It makes use of the levels of analysis framework and boxed features to highlight connections between theory and practice, aspirations and reality and history and contemporary events. This fully updated second edition includes a brand new chapter on International Organizations, a new feature to give students an insight into the latest academic research, and has been extensively rewritten throughout.

This is an ideal textbook for introductory modules for Political Science and International Relations undergraduate students.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1. Understanding International Relations

Abstract
During the fifth century BCE, the relevant political groups were Greek city-states (e.g. Athens or Sparta) rather than modern nation-states. International relations in that period in some ways looks similar to what it is today (city-states traded with each other, participated in cross-border sports competitions, practiced diplomacy, formed alliances, and fought wars against each other as enemies and as allies against the Persian Empire), but, of course, the modern international system also looks very different.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

Foundations of International Relations

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 2. The Emergence of a Global System of States, 1500-Today

Abstract
Today’s international system is a product of historical change. Some changes have been recent: while 51 independent states formed the United Nations in 1945, 193 states were members in 2017. Other changes have taken place over centuries: China was perhaps the most advanced state on earth in 1500, it then experienced decline and even subjugation by Japan and Western states during the 1900s, and during the past three decades it has once more become a global powerhouse.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

CHAPTER 3. Theories of International Relations

Abstract
Scholars have tried to understand the root causes of conflict and cooperation for more than two thousand years. Over the centuries, they have watched the great dramas of international relations unfold – the emergence of empires and nation-states, war and rivalry among great powers, the boom and bust of global commerce, the building of alliances and political communities, the clash of cultures, religions, and ideologies – and tried to make sense of it. They have asked simple yet fundamental questions: What explains war? Why do states trade with each other? Why do states cooperate or quarrel? Do democratic states act differently than autocratic states in the conduct of foreign policy? How does the global capitalist system impact relations among states? Are countries around the world trapped in a global system of violence and insecurity or can they cooperate to build peace? Scholars have debated these and other enduring questions for centuries and continue to debate them today.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

CHAPTER 4. The Analysis of Foreign Policy

Abstract
During the 1950s, China was allied with the Soviet Union and considered the United States its principle geopolitical adversary. China worked closely with the Soviet Union and fought opposite the United States during the Korean War of the 1950s and the Vietnam War of the 1960s. China did not even have diplomatic relations with the United States until the 1970s. By the 1980s, however, China not only established diplomatic relations, but moved closer to its former adversary, the United States, politically and economically. In contrast, by the end of the 1960s, China leaders came to view the Soviet Union more as an adversary than as an ally. China and the Soviet Union fought a border war in 1969.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

CHAPTER 5. Framing International Relations: The Role of Laws and Organizations

Abstract
It might be surprising to learn that although there is no authoritative ‘world government’ to regulate international relations, most states, most of the time, recognize and comply with international laws. Also, a significant part of the routine interactions of states takes place through international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization. International laws and organizations constitute a critical part of the landscape of international relations. Indeed, in recent years, governments have been grappling with whether there are instances in which state sovereignty - the cornerstone of the Westphalian state system created in the seventeenth century that we described in Chapter 2 - may now need to take a back seat to efforts by international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) as well as private, nongovernmental organizations like Human Rights Watch which promotes respect for and protection of the human rights of individual persons wherever they may live.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

War and Peace: An Introduction to Security Studies

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 6. War and Its Causes

Abstract
President George Bush of the United States and Prime Minister Tony Blair of the United Kingdom led a coalition of states in a war against Iraq in March 2003 because they believed that Iraq under Saddam Hussein was trying to build nuclear weapons. Just before the US invasion, US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz dismissed as ‘wildly off the mark’ an estimate by General Eric Shinseki, the US Army Chief of Staff, that, after the allies had defeated Saddam’s military, hundreds of thousands of US troops might then be needed to occupy and pacify Iraq (Milbank 2005). As it turns out, there were no Iraqi nuclear weapons. The United States, the United Kingdom, and their allies did, as expected, readily defeat Iraq’s military, but an insurgency soon threatened allied forces and the new Iraqi government, and the United States and its allies only achieved a modicum of stability in Iraq with a force that included 160,000 US troops. More than 165,000 Iraqi civilians, 4,400 American military personnel, and almost 200 British military personnel were killed during the Iraq war and the subsequent insurgency.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

CHAPTER 7. Pathways to Interstate peace

Abstract
War has been a constant feature of world politics over the centuries - but so too has been the search for peace. As soldiers have marched across distant battlefields and generals have plotted their military campaigns, diplomats and scholars have pondered the best ways to prevent war and establish stable international order. As we saw in Chapter 6, wars have come in many shapes and sizes. So too have the visions and strategies of peacemaking.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

CHAPTER 8. Technology, the Use of Force, and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Abstract
Although it may seem counterintuitive, the best way for two countries to avoid a nuclear war is for each one to try not to defend its own people in the face of a possible nuclear attack. This curious conclusion has been reached by many scholars and strategists who have thought long and hard about the connection between nuclear weapons and world politics. Nuclear weapons are so destructive that a nuclear war is unwinnable. The best way to avoid a nuclear war is to prevent countries from having nuclear weapons. But once countries have them, the best strategy may be to make sure no country sees a possible way to use nuclear weapons without facing massive destruction itself.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

Wealth and Power: An Introduction to International Political Economy

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 9. International Economics: Basic Theory and Core Institutions

Abstract
In 2016, trade between the United Kingdom and Vietnam reached about $5.6 billion. Two important products Vietnam supplies to UK residents, tea and coffee, cannot readily be produced in the British Isles, but one of the major products that Vietnam sells to the UK is shoes. Why does the UK need or want to buy shoes from Vietnam, rather than making them at home? At the same time, a major British export to Vietnam is prescription medications. Why doesn’t Vietnam develop and rely upon its own pharmaceutical industry? To address these and a host of other important questions relating to the international economy, we turn in this section to the subfield of International Relations that is called International Political Economy (IPE).
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

CHAPTER 10. States and Markets in the World Economy

Abstract
Even the most powerful states in the world - those with the largest military establishments and most destructive weapons - are deeply dependent on their economies to support such vast amounts of military power. At the same time, bankers and businesspeople around the world can engage in trade and exchange largely because states have created rules and institutions to support the free flow of goods and money. The world of international relations and power politics on the one hand, and the world of business and economics on the other, seem to be quite separate. Students tend to study these subjects in different classes and university departments. But, in fact, they are quite interconnected. Countries that are wealthy and fast-growing will tend to be more powerful on the world stage than poorer and slower-growing countries will be.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

CHAPTER 11. Dilemmas of Development

Abstract
South Korea today is wealthy: it has a bustling, modern economy, and its citizens are among the best educated and healthiest in the world. This progress is especially striking since, in 1980, the total output of goods and services that Argentina produced per person, at about $2,700, was approximately 60 percent greater than that of South Korea, at about $1,700. Starting from behind Argentina, and many other developing countries, South Korea surged ahead. By 2016, South Korea and Argentina had reversed their relative economic standing: while South Korea that year produced goods and services worth about $27,500 per person, Argentina’s output was about $12,500 per person. Although surpassed by South Korea, Argentina over these 36 years at least experienced an economy with reasonable growth. The Central African Republic, in contrast, made little progress during this period on the economic front: in 1980 its income per person was about $350; in 2016 that figure was about $380 per person.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

Contemporary Challenges and the Future of International Relations

Frontmatter

CHAPTER 12. Non-State Actors and Challenges to Sovereigntyt

Abstract
Many people think that states have always dominated world politics - and always will. But in fact, states have long been challenged in various ways. The ancient and early modern world was dominated by empires, and the nation-state only gained dominance in Europe in 1648. In earlier chapters, we explored moments when single states have tried to take over all or part of the system, such as Napoleonic France and Nazi Germany. The rise of nuclear weapons also led some people to argue that since states could no longer protect their populations, the state would wither away. In the 1970s, multinational corporations grew to be major players in the world economy, challenging the sovereign authority of national governments. In the 1990s, the international financial system - and large global banks - encroached on the ability of national governments to manage the world economy, and the 2008 financial crisis again showed governments at the mercy of financial markets.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

CHAPTER 13. The Environment and International Relations

Abstract
If we want to understand the past, the present, or especially the future of international relations, we must understand global environmental issues. We therefore devote this chapter to answering this enduring question: How does the natural environment influence international relations?
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno

CHAPTER 14. Facing the Future: Six Visions of an Emerging International Order

Abstract
As we look ahead to the next decade, will the international system undergo some type of fundamental change? Although the future is impossible to predict, the different assumptions scholars make about state behavior and the dynamics of international relations lead them to very different expectations about how world politics will turn out in the years ahead.
Joseph Grieco, G. John Ikenberry, Michael Mastanduno
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