During the nineteenth century, European women of all countries and social classes experienced some of the most dramatic and enduring changes in their familial, working, and political lives. This was a century of revolution — 1789, 1830, 1848, 1871 — punctuated by uprisings, rebellions, and mass demonstrations. Europeans formed new states and overseas empires, and more people gained the right to speak and write freely, to form associations, and, in the case of some men, to vote. It was also a century of repeated industrial and technological change. Mechanized printing presses, indoor plumbing, railroads, electric light, department stores, large factories, and large-scale, commercial agriculture were all introduced in the years between 1780 and 1914. Tens of thousands of people moved from countryside to city, from city to city, and from metropole to Empire. More people than ever learned how to read and write, and spent their leisure time engaged in new activities such as riding bicycles or watching motion pictures.
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Rachel G. Fuchs
Victoria E. Thompson
- Macmillan Education UK
- Sequence number