The Yugoslav wars involved the violent destruction of a society of 23 million people that was simultaneously undergoing the consequences of the collapse of Yugoslav socialism. Between 1991 and 1999, the wars in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo caused the death of approximately 140,000 people, 100,000 in Bosnia-Herzegovina. If the wars include the smallerscale 2001 Macedonian conflict, they could even be said to have lasted into the 2000s. The Yugoslav wars were Europe’s most serious security crisis since the early Cold War, and led to the first international war crimes tribunal since the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials. They also made the ex-Yugoslav region, especially Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, a test-bed for a new post-conflict peacebuilding model. Meanwhile, the development of scholarly literature on the wars exemplified the problems and politics of researching, understanding and narrating the recent past.
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