The phenomenon of international migration is not new: migrations have occurred throughout human history, beginning with the movements of the first human groups from origins in East Africa to their current location in the world. However, the forces of globalization, economics, political conflict and growth of the Internet and social networks offering news of life elsewhere mean more people are on the move now than at any other time in history. In 2013, the International Organization for Migration estimated there were 232 million international migrants1 worldwide, with nearly 50% living in the more developed countries of the world (IOM, 2013). This is predicted to rise to 405 million by 2050. This pattern is reflected in Britain as well: in 2014 approximately 12.5% of the population was born abroad, compared with 8% in 2001. The net long-term migration to the UK was estimated to be 260,000 for the year ending June 2014, with immigration of people from the EU countries increasing by 45,000, and non-EU by 30,000. Until recently, most migrants were assumed to be adult men. However, as reflected in the UN International Migration Report, 48% of all migrants in 2013 were women and 15% were under the age of 20.
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