To appreciate that the horizontal pressure acting on a wall is determined by the amount and type of movement, the flexibility of the wall and any propping or anchoring applied. To understand the Rankine theory of active and passive pressure and how it is modified by the presence of wall friction, inclined walls and backfill surfaces. To construct active and passive pressure diagrams appreciating the difference between undrained and drained conditions, the effects of the soil cohesion component, the presence of a water table and surcharge loads. To be aware of the range and styles of walls in various applications. To carry out a check on the stability of a gravity retaining wall including rotational failure, overturning, bearing pressure and sliding. To carry out a check on the stability of a cantilever and propped embedded wall. To appreciate that the design of a multi-propped strutted excavation is based on an empirical approach developed from experience. To carry out a check on the internal and external stability of a reinforced soil structure. The assessment of earth pressures is based generally on an effective stress analysis.
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