The third stage of the policy-making process — that of deliberation and assent — is undertaken, at least for UK legislation, by the Queen-in-Parliament. The two Houses of Parliament are responsible for the deliberation, and the two Houses plus the Crown are responsible for giving assent. The assent of the monarch is governed by convention (see Chapter 2). A bill has to go through several parliamentary stages before it can be submitted to the Queen for formal approval and hence become an Act of Parliament. The essential stages are listed in Table 5.1.
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