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Chapter 2 considers the contributions of early civilisations to the computing field, including the achievements of the Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans and the Islamic world. The Babylonian civilization flourished in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq) from about 2000 B.C., until about 300 B.C., and they made important contributions to mathematics. The Egyptian Civilization developed along the Nile from about 4000 B.C., and their knowledge of mathematics allowed them to construct the pyramids at Giza as well as other impressive monuments. The Greek s made major contributions to western civilization including mathematics, logic and philosophy. The Golden Age of Islamic civilization was from 750 A.D. to 1250 A.D., and enlightened caliphs recognized the value of knowledge, and sponsored scholars to come to Baghdad to gather and translate the existing world knowledge into Arabic.
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Mathematics in Civilisation. H.L. Resnikoff and R.O.Wells. Dover Publications. 1984.
History of mathematics. D.E. Smith. Volume 1. Dover Publications, New York. 1923.
The Heritage of Thales. W.S. Anglin and J. Lambek. Springer Verlag. New York. 1995.
Euclid. The Thirteen Books of the Elements. Vol. 1. Translated by Sir Thomas Heath. Dover Publications, 1956. (First published in 1925).
An Ancient Greek Computer. Derek J. de Solla Price. Scientific American, pp. 60–67. June 1959.
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