Rushdie’s second novel Midnight’s Children (1981) and his third novel Shame (1983) address the radical social and political changes brought about by India’s independence, partition and the formation of Pakistan. The genocide and abduction of thousands of refugees on both sides of the India-Pakistan border that followed partition; the war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir; and the authoritarian political leadership of Indira Gandhi and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto are just a few examples of the violence and repression associated with the formation of the divided postcolonial state. By employing self-reflective rhetorical and narrative devices, Rushdie interrogates the promises of political leaders such as Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, General Zia and Iskander Harappa, as well as the official narratives of national independence in order to address the division between the political elite and the people.
Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book
Please log in to get access to this content
To get access to this content you need the following product:
- Midnight’s Children and Shame
- Macmillan Education UK
- Sequence number
- Chapter number