The year 1500 saw a world as fully in motion as did the year 1800, yet by 1800 the degree, pace, character, and impact of that migration were fundamentally different. During this period, migration within the British Isles made parts of Ireland and England British, it eroded local cultures, and it produced urban societies, of which one, London, was comprised of migrants from all over Britain and became the largest city in Europe. Patterns of migration from Britain and Ireland similarly shaped migration across the Atlantic. Like Ireland, parts of America became British long before Britain itself, measured not in colonial public and legal cultures, which were initiated and codified in official charters and patents and thus highly derivative of English (and later British) legal and institutional practices, but in the composition of the migrant and settler populations. The British Atlantic world was made by migration, on both sides of the ocean, and for all members of society.
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