Direct military intervention in the politics of Third World countries has been a depressingly regular occurrence since the high-water mark of postwar independence. Between 1960 and 1980, three quarters of Latin American states experienced coups, as did half of the Third World Asian states and over half of the African states (Clapham, 1985; Woddis, 1977). The 1980s saw the trend continue strongly. Not a year passed without there being a coup, or an attempted coup, in some part of the Third World (World Bank, 1991). Despite the wave of democratization in the 1990s, there were coups, or attempted coups, in Chad (1990), Togo (1991), Peru, Sierra Leone, Venezuela, and Haiti (1992), Guatemala and Nigeria (1993), Gambia (1994), Pakistan (1999), and Venezuela (2002). Between 1990 and 2003, 11 African states attempting to democratize experienced no fewer than 26 instances of military intervention, including successful coups, failed coup attempts, and military rebellions (Clark, 2007). The military intervened in Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, and Guinea in 2008, Honduras in 2009, Niger in 2010, and Mali and Guinea-Bissau in 2012.
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- Military Intervention in Politics
B. C. Smith
- Macmillan Education UK
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