In most regions of the Third World, there are political movements campaigning, in most cases through armed struggle, for political self-determination on behalf of minority groups. In the Western Sahara, Polisario fights for liberation from Morocco. In Western Somalia, the Liberation Front aims to restore the Ethiopian Ogaden to Somalia. The Kurds of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria seek an independent and united Kurdistan. The National Resistance Council in Iran aims to establish an autonomous Baluchistan. In India, there are movements for autonomy among the Sikhs, Nagas, Mizos, and Tripuras, as well as in Kashmir. The Shanti Bahini of Bangladesh seek autonomy for the Chittagong tribes. In Burma, the programme of the Federal National Democratic Front includes a federal union based on self-determination for the Shan, Karen, Mon, Arakan, and Kachin peoples. The Karen National Union has been fighting for independence since 1948. The Tamil minority in Sri Lanka engaged in an unsuccessful civil war from 1983 to 2009 with the objective of forming a separate state in the north-east of the island. Indonesia has movements struggling for independence in West Papua and Acheh. In the Philippines, the Moro National Liberation Front seeks independence of the Muslim Moros in the south. There has been a strong ethnic revival since 1960 and a corresponding growth of interest among social scientists (Brown, 1989).
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- Nationalism and the Politics of Secession
B. C. Smith
- Macmillan Education UK
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