As previous chapters have already indicated, there are many reasons for migration. Additionally, population mobility is a complex process, where migration patterns are often rooted in the historical connections between particular countries or continents. It is a field of human activity which has increasingly given rise to both political responses and the need for practical interventions by social professionals. Hoogvelt (1997) has identified the movement of people from one political area to another as a clear symptom of the growing interconnectedness and mass deepening of globalization. Facing an increasing disparity of wealth, as well as natural and human-made disasters (including armed conflict), some populations have had to relocate — in search of employment, or respite, or basic protection. On the other hand, a new elite has emerged who are able to take advantage of the mechanisms of globalization (ICT, transport) to loosen their ties to particular geographical locations: they are willingly and globally mobile. Coincidentally, people in both these categories have influenced the global spread of disease, HIV/AIDS in particular (see Chapter 8).
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