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This chapter deals with network protocols of various kinds, especially transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) and related protocols. It concentrates heavily on IP and TCP themselves. We give attention to both IP version 4 and IP version 6. A section on Internet control message protocol (ICMP), which is used in TCP/IP networks to send error messages and informational messages of various kinds, precedes the material on TCP. High-level data link control (HDLC), a layer-2 protocol that is used in WANs, features next. There is brief coverage of multiprotocol label switching, which permits highly efficient routing. Finally, there are descriptions of two different classes of routing protocols, which allow routers to inform each other about networks that they know about without human intervention.
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