Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist who for six years collaborated with Sigmund Freud to develop the new science of psychoanalysis. In 1912 they parted ways after a somewhat acrimonious disagreement about the nature of the unconscious. Freud believed that the unconscious is the repository of repressed desires and wishes, and Jung thought that view too narrow. Jung proposed that in addition to the personal unconscious, we have a deeper stratum called the collective unconscious, an inherited trove of archetypes, or drives—towards feeling, reasoning, spirituality, maternity, paternity, power and so on—that comprise all the potentials, capacities and energies that define what it is to be human. Jung went on to draw from many fields—anthropology, folklore, comparative religion, alchemy—to develop an extensive picture of the archetypes and their influence on the psyche. Contemporary neuroscience, with its imaging capabilities, is continually verifying Jung’s findings.
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