The early history of social housing provision was characterized by a combination of Christian benevolence and paternalism. Charitable alms houses were established in the pre-industrial world, some as early as the twelfth century. Nineteenth-century industrial philanthropists such as George Peabody, Titus Salt and George and Richard Cadbury were pioneers of ethical capitalism. Their memorials still exist in the form of the model housing and charitable trusts they established to improve the quality of life of the ‘artisan class’ of their day.
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