The conflicts in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia all ended with peace settlements that aimed to state how ethnic groups and their political representatives would coexist within each country. The war in Slovenia, too, had ended after negotiations (the July 1991 Brioni Declaration), though without such detailed provisions about Slovenia’s internal ethno-political affairs. The post-1995 peace settlements had several things in common. They implied that guarantees about ethnic minorities’ status were necessary to prevent future wars. Moreover, they continued the link between ethno-national identity and territorial sovereignty that had underpinned twentieth-century state-building in south-east Europe. They also incorporated international supervision and monitoring, and so international bodies such as the UN and EU, foreign governments with interests in south-east Europe, and non-governmental organizations influenced post-Yugoslav domestic politics. In Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, international agencies were even part of the post-war political structure.
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