To be aware of the variety of pile types available and their advantages and limitations. To calculate the load capacity of single driven and bored piles in both sand and clay soils. To appreciate the relative importance of shaft and base resistances, how they are mobilised and derived in sands and clays. To apply the limit state approach to the design of pile foundations. To assess the effects of negative skin friction acting on a pile foundation. To understand the effects produced by placing piles together in a group. If a structure cannot be satisfactorily supported on a shallow foundation for reasons such as incompetent ground, swelling/shrinking soil or open water then a pile foundation can provide an economic alternative. A single pile can be defined as a long, slender structural member used to transmit loads applied at its top to the ground at lower levels.
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