As place competition has increased so also has place marketing and place branding. Some argue that the practice is not really new. Ward and Gold (1994: 2) showed that seaside resorts have a long history of producing posters and pamphlets advertising their ‘golden sands, invigorating climates … [and] welcoming hotels’. In the USA there is a long tradition of promoting towns. The activity gave rise to a new word, ‘boosterism’. It was typically led by a local business grouping, which subsequently added support from other quarters to create a ‘growth coalition’ (Logan and Molotch, 1987: 62). Meanwhile, in the UK in the 1960s, the old industrial city of Newcastle-upon-Tyne began to project itself as ‘the New Brasilia’ and ‘The Milan of the North’, as it embarked on a major programme of comprehensive redevelopment. In general, though, the promotional aspect of regional and local economic development in those days was concentrated on advertising the land and property aspects of a place, its industrial estates and access to the highway network. It has become more sophisticated and widespread.
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