The fact that people disagree fundamentally about morality, religion and the good life is a defining and intractable feature of modern social life. It also raises a number of difficult normative questions for political theorists. For instance, can citizens who favour conflicting ethical, political and religious ideologies agree about fundamental political values? Can a broadly secular society treat religious believers as equals, and vice versa? And how should a society respond to individuals and groups who are profoundly sceptical about, or even hostile to, its basic values? In this chapter we will explore three different ways in which contemporary political theorists have responded to questions like these.
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