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About this book

The 6th edition of Andrew Heywood’s best-selling undergraduate textbook provides a clear and accessible introduction to the political creeds and doctrines that have dominated and shaped politics around the world. The author offers a clear exposition both of the historical development of each ideology and of the impact it has had on contemporary political behaviour, movements, parties and governments. In recent years, political commentators have heralded a renaissance of popular political ideology, characterised by a resurgence of issues and political traditions that many had thought obsolete. This new edition is updated throughout to take account of these developments, broadening its appeal internationally.

The book is particularly relevant for first and second year undergraduate teaching, and can be used to structure a whole course on political ideologies covering traditional ideologies (conservatism, socialism, liberalism, anarchism and fascism) as well as concepts which have developed into concrete ideologies more recently (multiculturalism, feminism and ecologism, amongst others).

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Political Ideologies and Why They Matter

Abstract
All people are political thinkers. Whether they know it or not, people use political ideas and concepts whenever they express their opinion or speak their mind. Everyday language is littered with terms such as ‘freedom’, ‘fairness’, ‘equality’, ‘justice’ and ‘rights’. In the same way, words such as ‘conservative’, ‘liberal’, ‘socialist’, ‘communist’ and ‘fascist’ are regularly employed by people either to describe their own views, or those of others. However, even though such terms are familiar, even commonplace, they are seldom used with any precision or a clear grasp of their meaning. What, for instance, is ‘equality’? What does it mean to say that all people are equal? Are people born equal; should they be treated by society as if they are equal? Should people have equal rights, equal opportunities, equal political influence, equal wages? Similarly, words such as ‘socialist’ or ‘fascist’ are commonly misused. What does it mean to call someone a ‘fascist’? What values or beliefs do fascists hold, and why do they hold them? How do socialist views differ from those of, say, liberals, conservatives or anarchists? This book examines the substantive ideas and beliefs of the major political ideologies.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 2. Liberalism

Abstract
The term ‘liberal’ has been in use since the fourteenth century but has had a wide variety of meanings. The Latin liber referred to a class of free men; in other words, men who were neither serfs nor slaves. It has meant generous, as in ‘liberal’ helpings of food and drink; or, in reference to social attitudes, it has implied openness or open-mindedness. It also came to be associated increasingly with the ideas of freedom and choice. The term ‘liberalism’, to denote a political allegiance, made its appearance much later: it was not used until the early part of the nineteenth century, being first employed in Spain in 1812. By the 1840s, the term was widely recognized throughout Europe as a reference to a distinctive set of political ideas. However, it was taken up more slowly in the UK: though the Whigs started to call themselves Liberals during the 1830s, the first distinctly Liberal government was not formed until Gladstone took office in 1868.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 3. Conservatism

Abstract
In everyday language, the term ‘conservative’ has a variety of meanings. It can refer to moderate or cautious behaviour, a lifestyle that is conventional, even conformist, or a fear of or refusal to change, particularly denoted by the verb ‘to conserve’. ‘Conservatism’ was first used in the early nineteenth century to describe a distinctive political position or ideology. In the USA, it implied a pessimistic view of public affairs. By the 1820s, the term was being used to denote opposition to the principles and spirit of the 1789 French Revolution. In the UK, ‘Conservative’ gradually replaced ‘Tory’ as a title of the principal opposition party to the Whigs, becoming the party’s official name in 1835.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 4. Socialism

Abstract
The term ‘socialist’ derives from the Latin sociare, meaning to combine or to share. Its earliest known usage was in 1827 in the UK, in an issue of the Co-operative Magazine. By the early 1830s, the followers of Robert Owen in the UK and Henri de Saint-Simon in France had started to refer to their beliefs as ‘socialism’ and, by the 1840s, the term was familiar in a range of industrialized countries, notably France, Belgium and the German states.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 5. Anarchism

Abstract
The word ‘anarchy’ comes from the Greek anarkhos and literally means ‘without rule’. The term ‘anarchism’ has been in use since the French Revolution, and was initially employed in a critical or negative sense to imply a breakdown of civilized or predictable order. In everyday language, anarchy implies chaos and disorder. Needless to say, anarchists themselves fiercely reject such associations. It was not until Pierre-Joseph Proudhon proudly declared in What Is Property? ([1840] 1970), ‘I am an anarchist’, that the word was clearly associated with a positive and systematic set of political ideas.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 6. Nationalism

Abstract
The word ‘nation’ has been used since the thirteenth century and derives from the Latin nasci, meaning to be born. In the form of natio, it referred to a group of people united by birth or birthplace. In its original usage, nation thus implied a breed of people or a racial group, but possessed no political significance. It was not until the late eighteenth century that the term acquired political overtones, as individuals and groups started to be classified as ‘nationalists’. The term ‘nationalism’ was first used in print in 1789 by the anti-Jacobin French priest Augustin Barruel. By the mid-nineteenth century, nationalism was widely recognized as a political doctrine or movement; for example, as a major ingredient of the revolutions that swept across Europe in 1848.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 7. Fascism

Abstract
The term ‘fascism’ derives from the Italian word fasces, meaning a bundle of rods with an axe-blade protruding that signified the authority of magistrates in Imperial Rome. By the 1890s, the word fascia was being used in Italy to refer to a political group or band, usually of revolutionary socialists. It was not until Mussolini employed the term to describe the paramilitary armed squads he formed during and after the First World War that fascismo acquired a clearly ideological meaning.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 8. Feminism

Abstract
As a political term, ‘feminism’ was a twentieth-century invention and has only been a familiar part of everyday language since the 1960s. (‘Feminist’ was first used in the nineteenth century as a medical term to describe either the feminization of men or the masculinization of women.) In modern usage, feminism is invariably linked to the women’s movement and the attempt to advance the social role of women.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 9. Green Ideology

Abstract
The term ‘green’ was first used in connection with environmentally-orientated politics when it was employed to describe conservation and preservation movements which had sprung up in late nineteenth-century USA. The term nevertheless became more prominent from the 1970s onwards, first through its use by environmental organizations such as Greenpeace, established in 1971, but more significantly through the tendency of many emerging environmental parties to brand themselves as ‘Green parties’. The most influential of these new parties, and the model on which many other such parties were based, was the German Greens (Die Grünen), founded in 1980. From this point onwards, the term was adopted more widely, being used to refer, amongst other things, to green philosophy, green politics and green ideology (sometimes called ‘ecologism’, ‘political ecology’ or ‘greenism’).
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 10. Multiculturalism

Abstract
Although multicultural societies have long existed – examples include the Ottoman empire, which reached its peak in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and the USA from the early nineteenth century onwards – the term ‘multiculturalism’ is of relatively recent origin. It was first used in 1965 in Canada to describe a distinctive approach to tackling the issue of cultural diversity. In 1971, multiculturalism, or ‘multiculturalism within a bilingual framework’, was formally adopted as public policy in Canada, providing the basis for the introduction of the Multiculturalism Act in 1988. Australia also officially declared itself multicultural and committed itself to multiculturalism in the early 1970s. However, the term ‘multiculturalism’ has only been prominent in wider political debate since the 1990s.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 11. Islamism

Abstract
Islam is not merely a religion. It is a total and complete way of life, providing guidance in every sphere of human existence – individual and social, material and moral, legal and cultural, economic and political, national and international. In Islam, then, politics and religion are two sides of the same coin. However, the notion of a fusion between Islam and politics has assumed a more radical and intense character due to the rise, since the early twentieth century, of ‘Islamism’ (also called ‘political Islam’, ‘radical Islam’ or ‘activist Islam’). Although its ideas are embraced by only a small minority of Muslims worldwide, Islamism has had a dramatically disproportionate impact. Its central belief is in the construction of an ‘Islamic state’, usually viewed as a state based on divine Islamic law, the sharia . As such, Islamism extracts a political programme from the religious principles and ideals of Islam. A distinction is therefore usually drawn between the ideology of Islamism and the faith of Islam, although the relationship between Islamism and Islam is deeply contested.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 12. Ideology Without End?

Abstract
Political ideology has been an essential component of world history for over 200 years. Ideology sprang out of the upheavals – economic, social and political – through which the modern world took shape, and has been intimately involved in the continuing process of social transformation and political development. Although ideology emerged first in the industrializing West, it has subsequently appeared throughout the globe, creating a worldwide language of political discourse. However, opinion has been deeply divided about the role that ideology has played in human history. Has ideology served the cause of truth, progress and justice, or has it generated distorted and blinkered world-views, resulting in intolerance and oppression?
Andrew Heywood
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