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About this book

The fifth edition of this leading text on political ideologies provides a clear and accessible introduction to the political creeds and doctrines that have dominated and shaped world politics.

Ranging from traditional nineteenth-century ideologues such as liberalism, conservatism and socialism, to so-called 'new' ideologies such as feminism, ecologism and political Islam, the author offers a clear exposition both of the historical development of each ideology and the impact each has had on contemporary political movements, parties and governments. Their distinctive ideas and values are highlighted, together with the competing, and sometimes conflicting, traditions which they have generated.

This new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated throughout, with extended coverage given to key current issues such as multiculturalism and neo-conservatism. Andrew Heywood's uniquely student-friendly writing style is now supported by a range of learning features in each chapter.

• Ideology Previews outline the nature of the ideologies and their central themes
• On-page definitions give quick-reference explanations of key terms
• Illustrated 'Key Figure' Profiles provide detail on important thinkers and their major ideas
• 'Key Concept' boxes explore and unpack important ideas
• Boxes on 'Perspectives' and 'Tensions' outline the differences within and between ideological traditions
• Questions help to apply and reinforce understanding

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction: Ideology and Ideologies

All people are political thinkers. Whether they know it or not, people use political ideas and concepts whenever they express their opinion or speak their mind. Everyday language is littered with terms such as ‘freedom’, ‘fairness’, ‘equality’, ‘justice’ and ‘rights’. In the same way, words such as ‘conservative’, ‘liberal’, ‘socialist’, ‘communist’ and ’fascist’ are regularly employed by people either to describe their own views, or those of others. However, even though such terms are familiar, even commonplace, they are seldom used with any precision or a clear grasp of their meaning. What, for instance, is ‘equality’? What does it mean to say that all people are equal? Are people born equal; should they be treated by society as if they are equal? Should people have equal rights, equal opportunities, equal political influence, equal wages? Similarly, words such as ‘socialist’ or ‘fascist’ are commonly misused. What does it mean to call someone a ‘fascist’? What values or beliefs do fascists hold, and why do they hold them? How do socialist views differ from those of, say, liberals, conservatives or anarchists? This book examines the substantive ideas and beliefs of the major political ideologies.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 3. Conservatism

In everyday language, the term ‘conservative’ has a variety of meanings. It can refer to moderate or cautious behaviour, a lifestyle that is conventional, even conformist, or a fear of or refusal to change, particularly denoted by the verb ‘to conserve’. ‘Conservatism’ was first used in the early nineteenth century to describe a distinctive political position or ideology. In the USA, it implied a pessimistic view of public affairs. By the 1820s, the term was being used to denote opposition to the principles and spirit of the 1789 French Revolution. In the UK, ‘Conservative’ gradually replaced ‘Tory’ as a title of the principal opposition party to the Whigs, becoming the party’s official name in 1835.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 6. Nationalism

The word ‘nation’ has been used since the thirteenth century and derives from the Latin nasci, meaning to be born. In the form of natio, it referred to a group of people united by birth or birthplace. In its original usage, nation thus implied a breed of people or a racial group, but possessed no political significance. It was not until the late eighteenth century that the term acquired political overtones, as individuals and groups started to be classified as ‘nationalists’. The term ‘nationalism’ was first used in print in 1789 by the anti-Jacobin French priest Augustin Barruel. By the mid-nineteenth century, nationalism was widely recognized as a political doctrine or movement; for example, as a major ingredient of the revolutions that swept across Europe in 1848.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 8. Feminism

As a political term, ‘feminism’ was a twentieth-century invention and has only been a familiar part of everyday language since the 1960s. (‘Feminist’ was first used in the nineteenth century as a medical term to describe either the feminization of men or the masculinization of women.) In modern usage, feminism is invariably linked to the women’s movement and the attempt to advance the social role of women.
Andrew Heywood

Chapter 11. Multiculturalism

Although multicultural societies have long existed — examples including the Ottoman empire, which reached its peak in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and the USA from the early nineteenth century onwards — the term ‘multiculturalism’ is of relatively recent origin. It was first used in 1965 in Canada to describe a distinctive approach to tackling the issue of cultural diversity. In 1971, multiculturalism, or ‘multiculturalism within a bilingual framework’, was formally adopted as public policy in Canada, providing the basis for the introduction of the Multiculturalism Act in 1988. Australia also officially declared itself multicultural and committed itself to multiculturalism in the early 1970s. However, the term ‘multiculturalism’ has only been prominent in wider political debate since the 1990s.
Andrew Heywood
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