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About this book

International migration is a central feature of the contemporary world. The fifth edition of this leading text has been substantially revised to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive assessment of the nature, extent and dimensions of international population movements, as well as of their consequences. Taking full account of the latest developments, including the impact of the global economic crisis and the relationship of globalization to migration, this text firmly contextualizes the main issues, theories and history that contribute to the field.

This latest edition has extensive coverage of regional case studies, as well as additional material that examines the effect of climate change on migration. The book's companion website helps to consolidate learning by providing additional resources, including further case studies, links to external web-pages and a web-only chapter. It can be accessed at: www.age-of-migration.com.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Migration and the resulting ethnic and racial diversity are amongst the most emotive subjects in contemporary societies. While global migration rates have remained relatively stable over the past half a century, the political salience of migration has strongly increased. For origin societies, the departure of people raises concern about the ‘brain drain’ on the one hand, but it also creates the hope that the money and knowledge migrants gather abroad can foster human and economic development. For receiving societies, the settlement of migrant groups and the formation of ethnic minorities can fundamentally change the social, cultural, economic and political fabric of societies, particularly in the longer run.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 2. Theories of Migration

Abstract
Migration is hardly ever a simple individual action in which a person decides to move in search of better life-chances, pulls up his or her roots in the place of origin and quickly becomes assimilated in a new country. Much more often migration and settlement are a long-drawn-out process that will be played out for the rest of the migrant’s life, and affect subsequent generations too. Migration can even transcend death: members of some migrant groups arrange for their bodies to be taken back for burial in their native soil (see Tribalat, 1995: 109–11). Migration is often a collective action, arising out of social, economic and political change and affecting the whole society in both sending and receiving areas. Moreover, the experience of migration and of living in another country often leads to modification of the original plans, so that migrants’ intentions at the time of departure are poor predictors of actual behaviour.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 3. How Migration Transforms Societies

Abstract
Migration raises high hopes and deep fears: hopes for the migrants themselves, for whom migration often embodies the promise of a better future. At the same time, migration can be a dangerous undertaking, and every year thousands die in attempts to cross borders. Family and friends are often left behind in uncertainty. If a migrant fails to find a job or is expelled, it can mean the loss of all family savings. However, if successful, migration can mean a stable source of family income, decent housing, the ability to cure an illness, resources to set up a business and the opportunity for children to study.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 4. International Migration before 1945

Abstract
The post-1945 migrations may be new in scale and direction, but population movements in response to demographic change, and the development of production and trade, have always been part of human history. Indeed, recent evidence from a range of scientific disciplines, including archaeology, genetics, historical linguistics and anthropology, has shown that all human beings originated in evolutionary processes that started some 7 million years ago in Africa. The spread of Homo erectus — a new hominid species with superior brain capacity — out of East Africa started about 2 million years ago. Homo erectus was able to colonize large areas of Africa and went on to establish settlements as far afield as the Middle East, the Caucasus, Java and South China. Then, about 200,000 years ago, a new hominid species — Homo sapiens — emerged in Africa. Homo sapiens — the modern human — had superior adaptive capacities, and was able to displace all other hominids, moving stage by stage to people the entire earth (see Goldin et al., 2011; also Manning, 2005, chapter 2).
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 5. Migration in Europe since 1945

Abstract
This chapter and the three that follow provide overviews of migration in, to and from specific world regions: Europe; the Americas; Asia and the Pacific; and Africa and the Middle East. They cover all types of international migration, both forced and voluntary. Obviously, single chapters cannot do justice to the complexity of migration situations in such vast regions, and we encourage readers to follow up our sources for the areas that interest them most. Inevitably our accounts are selective and leave out a great deal. Some sub-regions (such as Central Asia and South Asia) are barely covered, while other areas are presented in greater detail. Although international migration transcends borders, we often have to focus on nation-states, since most data is presented and policies are formed at that level. The aim of these chapters is to show the main trends in international migration, and how global and regional patterns play out in various locations. Since historical developments and contemporary trends vary greatly, it has proved impossible to structure the regional chapters in a common way; each follows the logic of the most pressing issues of the region. Nonetheless, behind the complexity and diversity, we believe that certain global features — already discussed in earlier chapters — can be discerned.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 6. Migration in the Americas

Abstract
The nations of North, Central and South America and the Caribbean (which together make up ‘the Americas’) have been made and re-made by the migrations of the last half-millennium. Immigration and settlement was a crucial component of the process of colonization that began in the late fifteenth century when Spain, Portugal, England and France fought to gain control over the ‘New World’. The fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries were marked by conquest and resource extraction, at first from gold and silver mines and then from sugar, tobacco and other plantations (Galeano, 1973). While the indigenous population decreased due to the diseases, massacres and forced labour brought by colonization, the arrival and settlement of European migrants and African slaves, along with the consequent process of mestizaje (mixing of racial groups), produced deep and lasting changes, which helped create the contemporary face of this continent.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 7. Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region

Abstract
Well over half the world’s population lives in the Asia-Pacific region: 4.2 billion (or 60 per cent) of the world total of 6.9 billion in 2010 (UNDESA, 2011). Yet in 2010, Asia hosted just 27.5 million immigrants — 13 per cent of the world total of 214 million (UNDESA, 2009), India (9 million emigrants), Bangladesh (7 million) and China (6 million) are among the world’s main emigration countries in volume, although emigration rates are low, relative to the vast size of their populations. Pakistan, the Philippines, Afghanistan, Vietnam, Indonesia, South Korea and Nepal are also important origin countries. Top receiving countries for Asian migrants in 2000 were the USA (8 million), India (6 million), Saudi Arabia (2 million), Pakistan (3 million), Hong Kong SAR (2.5 million), Iran (2 million), Canada (2 million) and Malaysia (2 million (IOM, 2010: 166–7) (see Figure 7.1).
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 8. Migration in Africa and the Middle East

Abstract
Africa and the Middle East are regions that have gone through profound political and economic transformations since the end of World War II. Virtually all their societies have experienced decolonization, the often tumultuous formation of new nation-states, conflicts related to access to oil reserves and other natural resources, alongside more general processes of social transformation and globalization. Some countries, particularly oil-rich countries in the Gulf region, have become extraordinarily wealthy while other countries, such as those of the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes regions have been confronted with frequent violence, high poverty and sustained underdevelopment. Other countries, such as Turkey and those of North Africa occupy more intermediate positions, with modest levels of development and relatively less violence.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 9. Migration, Security and the Debate on Climate Change

Abstract
One of the most important migration-related developments in the Age of Migration has been the linking of migration to security, a process of social construction termed securitization. This has not occurred everywhere and an important priority for future scholarship is to better elucidate why securitization takes place in some regions, contexts, and eras but not in others. The period between 1945 and roughly 1970 in Western Europe was notable for the prevalent pattern of migration not being viewed as germane to security. International migration into and from most Latin American and Iberian countries generally has not been viewed as an important national security concern, save for the exceptional cases of Haiti-Dominican Republic, Cuba and several cases of Central American refugee flows.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 10. The State and International Migration: The Quest for Control

Abstract
International migration to highly developed states entered a new phase during the global economic recession of the early 1970s. To prevent unwanted migration, post-industrial democracies, such as France, Germany and the USA, embarked on what can be termed a ‘quest for control’ over cross-border movements. This quest entailed sustained efforts to prevent unauthorized migration and the abuse or circumvention of immigration regulations and policies.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 11. Migrants and Minorities in the Labour Force

Abstract
People migrate for many reasons. Although government policies often focus on economic migration, a big share of migration is not primarily for economic purposes. The largest entry category for many countries is family reunion. Other people move to seek refuge from war and persecution. The increased ease of mobility is also leading to more movement for education, marriage, retirement or simply in search of new lifestyles. But many people do migrate for explicitly economic reasons: in search of higher incomes, better employment chances or professional advancement. Moreover, all international migration has an economic dimension: origin countries look to remittances, investments and technology transfer by migrants as resources for economic growth, while destination countries are concerned with the role of migrants in meeting demand for labour and skills.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 12. New Ethnic Minorities and Society

Abstract
Migration since 1945 has led to growing cultural diversity and the formation of new ethnic groups in many countries. Such groups are visible through the presence of different-looking people speaking their own languages, the development of ethnic neighbourhoods, and the establishment of ethnic associations. In this chapter we will examine the experience of a range of societies. The topic would really require detailed description of developments in each immigration country — including emerging ones in Africa, Latin America and Asia. That is not possible here, and the chapter focuses mainly (though not exclusively) on Western Europe, North America and Oceania. Accounts of diversity and minorities in selected countries — the USA, Australia, the UK, France, Germany and Italy — are presented in Boxes 12.1 – 12.6. The Age of Migration website provides further material on some other immigration countries: Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden and South Korea.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 13. Immigrants and Politics

Abstract
The most lasting significance of international migration may well be its effects upon politics. This is not inevitably the case. Much depends on how immigrants are treated by governments, and on the origins, timing, nature and context of a particular migration. It makes a difference whether migrants were legally admitted and permitted to naturalize or whether their entry (legal or irregular) was seen as merely temporary but they then stayed on permanently. On the one hand, immigrants can quickly become citizens without a discernible political effect, save for the addition of more potential voters. On the other hand, international migration may lead to an accretion of politically disenfranchised populations whose political marginality is compounded by various socio-economic problems. Migrants have a major stake in the nature of public policies affecting them, particularly in the immigration policies of receiving states but also in the much less studied emigration policies of origin states (Delano, 2011: 14–22; Green and Weil, 2007: 1).
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller

Chapter 14. Conclusion: Migration in the Twenty-First Century

Abstract
This book has argued that international migration is a constant, not an aberration, in human history. Population movements have always accompanied demographic growth, economic transformations, technological change, political conflict and warfare. Over the last five centuries, migration has played a major role in colonialism, industrialization, nation-state formation and the development of the capitalist world market. However, international migration has never been as pervasive, or as socio-economically and politically significant, as it is today. Never before have political leaders accorded such priority to migration concerns.
Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas, Mark J. Miller
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