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About this book

Long established as the leading textbook on migration and used by students and scholars alike all over the world, this fully revised and updated sixth edition continues to offer an authoritative and cutting-edge account of migration flows, why they occur, and their consequences for both origin and destination societies. International migration is one of the most emotive issues of our times, reforging societies around the world and shaping debates on security, national identity and sovereignty in profound ways. The expert authors of this book provide a truly global and interdisciplinary introduction to this perennially important topic, with chapters covering all of the world’s regions and spanning the nineteenth century to the present day. Exploring the significance of migration in relation to recent events and emerging trends, from the policies of the European Union to the Great Recession, this text helps to shed light on the often large gap between the rhetoric and realities of migration.

For students of migration studies in disciplines as wide ranging as Politics, Sociology, Geography, Area Studies, Anthropology and History this is an indispensable guide, whether already familiar with the subject matter or approaching the topic for the first time.

The Age of Migration is published by Macmillan Education. In the United States and its dependencies, Canada, Mexico and the Philippines, it is distributed under licence by Guildford Press.

https://www.guilford.com/books/The-Age-of-Migration/Castles-Haas-Miller/9781462513116

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Abstract
Migration raises high hopes and deep fears: Hopes for the migrants themselves, for whom migration often embodies the promise of a better future. At the same time, migration can be a dangerous undertaking, and every year thousands die in attempts to cross borders. Family and friends are often left behind in uncertainty. If a migrant fails to find a job or is expelled, it can mean the loss of all family savings. However, if successful, migration can mean a stable source of family income, decent housing, the ability to cure an illness, resources to set up a business and the opportunity for children to study.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

2. Categories of migration

Abstract
Abstract
Categories are essential tools for understanding migration. They help us to make sense of complex social processes, to see patterns and to compare. However, the uncritical use of categories can also be a source of confusion and distortion. Common misperceptions about migration start with the language and categories politicians, media and researchers use to describe different types of migration and migrants. A particular problem is the uncritical adoption of legal and policy categories to describe migration. These categories are not always meaningful, and can stand in the way of achieving a better understanding of migration processes. Language matters. After all, categories and terms shape the way we perceive the world around us. For instance, it matters whether the same group of people is described as ‘illegal aliens’, ‘irregular migrants’ or ‘undocumented workers’.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

3. Theories of Migration

Abstract
Migration is hardly ever a simple individual action in which a person decides to move in search of better life-chances, pulls up his or her roots in the place of origin and quickly becomes assimilated in a new country. Much more often migration and settlement are a long-term process that will be played out for the rest of the migrant’s life, and affect subsequent generations too. Migration can even transcend death: members of some migrant groups arrange for their bodies to be taken back for burial in their native soil (see Tribalat 1995: 109–11). Migration is often a collective action, arising out of social, economic and political change and affecting entire communities and societies in both origin and destination areas. Moreover, the experience of migration and of living in another country often leads to modification of original plans, so that migrants’ intentions at the time of departure are poor predictors of actual behaviour.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

4. Migration, ethnicity and identity

Abstract
Although each migratory movement has its own specific historical patterns, it is possible to generalize on the social dynamics of the migratory process. Most economic migrations are undertaken by young, active people with a significant level of education, skills and ambitions. Particularly in developing countries, labour migrants are often ‘target-earners’, who want to save money to improve conditions at home, by buying land, building a house, setting up a business, or paying for education. After a period in the destination country, some of these migrants return home, but others prolong their stay, or return and then remigrate. The latter pattern is known as ‘circular migration’. As time goes on, many erstwhile temporary migrants get their spouses to join them, or find partners in the new country. With the birth of children, settlement generally takes on a more permanent character. This also applies for many non-economic forms of migration, such as refugee migration.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

5. International Migration before 1945

Abstract
Recent migrations may be new in scale and scope, but population movement have always been part of human history. Indeed, recent evidence from a range of scientific disciplines, including archaeology, genetics, historical linguistics and anthropology, has shown that all human beings originated in evolutionary processes that started some 7 million years ago in Africa. The spread of Homo erectus – a new hominid species with superior
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

6. Migration in Europe since 1945

Abstract
Since the sixteenth century, Europeans have been moving elsewhere through conquering, colonizing, and settling in lands elsewhere on the globe, as well as by transporting slaves from Africa to the Americas and moving indentured workers from South and East Asia, to work in the Caribbean, East Africa, Mauritius and elsewhere. These patterns would largely reverse in the second half of the twentieth century. Under the influence of decolonization, demographic change, and rapid economic growth, Europe emerged as a major global migration destination. This would take most European societies by surprise, as large-scale immigration and settlement was neither planned nor generally desired. There have been four main phases in post-WWII European migrations.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

7. Migration in the Americas

Abstract
The Americas have been made and re-made by the migrations of the past 500 years. Conquest, slavery, immigration and settlement were crucial components of the process of colonization that began in the late fifteenth century when Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, England and France fought to gain control over the ‘New World’. The fifteenth to nineteenth centuries were marked by violent conquest and resource extraction, at first from gold and silver mines and then from sugar, tobacco and other plantations.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

8. Migration in the Asia–Pacific Region

Abstract
Over the past half century, Asia has massively entered the global migration stage. This expansion of population mobility within and from the region reflects the extraordinarily rapid economic development and social transformations much of Asia has gone through as well as globalization processes. Asia’s regions differ greatly in history, culture, religion, economy and politics. At the same time, within each region and even within each country, there is enormous diversity. It is impossible to cover all the variations in migratory patterns and experiences. This chapter therefore focuses on the key migration trends.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

9. Migration in Africa and the Middle East

Abstract
Africa and the Middle East have gone through profound political and economic transformations since the end of World War II. Many countries have experienced tumultuous formation of new nation states in the wake of decolonization, conflicts related to access to oil reserves and other natural resources, alongside more general processes of social transformation and globalization. Some countries, particularly oil-rich countries in the Gulf region, have become extraordinarily wealthy, while other countries, such as in the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes regions have experienced frequent violence and high poverty. Other countries, such as Turkey, Morocco and South Africa occupy more intermediate positions, with modest levels of development and relatively less violence.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

10. The State, Politics and Migration

Abstract
The very concept of migration implies residency, the idea that people have a fixed place where they belong and where they can be located and controlled. This is why states and politicians often become nervous once large numbers of people start moving on their own, because it is an implicit threat to state sovereignty and elite privileges. In early industrializing societies, such fears have been typically concentrated on large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Anxieties about the “rural exodus” of peasants and perceived problems of crowding, poverty, crime, disease and cultural change in urban areas, and the desire to curb rural-to-urban migration and keep people down on the farm was prevalent in nineteenth century Europe, and is now still is a major concern in many developing countries. As De Soto argued,
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

11. The evolution and effectiveness of migration policies

Abstract
Because the arrival and settlement of migrants often provides a (real or perceived) challenge to state sovereignty and ‘national identity’, the ability of politicians to control migration and thus exert state sovereignty over the movement of people has been a major political preoccupation. The previous chapter has shown that while early nation states used to be mainly preoccupied with controlling the departure (emigration) of their citizens, over the course of the twentieth century the emphasis of migration control policies has shifted to controlling and regulating the arrival of foreigners. In order to analyse the ways in which states and groups of states have attempted to exert this sovereignty, this chapter gives an overview of the ways in which states and state policies have tried to regulate migration in the modern era, and how effective these policies have been.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

12. Migrants and Minorities in the Labour Force

Abstract
Migration is hardly ever a simple individual action in which a person decides to move in search of better life-chances, pulls up his or her roots in the place of origin and quickly becomes assimilated in a new country. Much more often migration and settlement are a long-term process that will be played out for the rest of the migrant’s life, and affect subsequent generations too. Migration can even transcend death: members of some migrant groups arrange for their bodies to be taken back for burial in their native soil (see Tribalat 1995: 109–11). Migration is often a collective action, arising out of social, economic and political change and affecting entire communities and societies in both origin and destination areas. Moreover, the experience of migration and of living in another country often leads to modification of original plans, so that migrants’ intentions at the time of departure are poor predictors of actual behaviour.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

13. New Ethnic Minorities and Society

Abstract
Migration is hardly ever a simple individual action in which a person decides to move in search of better life-chances, pulls up his or her roots in the place of origin and quickly becomes assimilated in a new country. Much more often migration and settlement are a long-term process that will be played out for the rest of the migrant’s life, and affect subsequent generations too. Migration can even transcend death: members of some migrant groups arrange for their bodies to be taken back for burial in their native soil (see Tribalat 1995: 109–11). Migration is often a collective action, arising out of social, economic and political change and affecting entire communities and societies in both origin and destination areas. Moreover, the experience of migration and of living in another country often leads to modification of original plans, so that migrants’ intentions at the time of departure are poor predictors of actual behaviour.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

14. Migration and development in origin societies

Abstract
Migration is hardly ever a simple individual action in which a person decides to move in search of better life-chances, pulls up his or her roots in the place of origin and quickly becomes assimilated in a new country. Much more often migration and settlement are a long-term process that will be played out for the rest of the migrant’s life, and affect subsequent generations too. Migration can even transcend death: members of some migrant groups arrange for their bodies to be taken back for burial in their native soil (see Tribalat 1995: 109–11). Migration is often a collective action, arising out of social, economic and political change and affecting entire communities and societies in both origin and destination areas. Moreover, the experience of migration and of living in another country often leads to modification of original plans, so that migrants’ intentions at the time of departure are poor predictors of actual behaviour.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller

15. Conclusion

Abstract
Migration is hardly ever a simple individual action in which a person decides to move in search of better life-chances, pulls up his or her roots in the place of origin and quickly becomes assimilated in a new country. Much more often migration and settlement are a long-term process that will be played out for the rest of the migrant’s life, and affect subsequent generations too. Migration can even transcend death: members of some migrant groups arrange for their bodies to be taken back for burial in their native soil (see Tribalat 1995: 109–11). Migration is often a collective action, arising out of social, economic and political change and affecting entire communities and societies in both origin and destination areas. Moreover, the experience of migration and of living in another country often leads to modification of original plans, so that migrants’ intentions at the time of departure are poor predictors of actual behaviour.
Hein de Haas, Stephen Castles, Mark J. Miller
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