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About this book

This authoritative text gives a comprehensive account of the European Union's foreign policy. Moving beyond the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the Common Security and Defence Policy, the authors demonstrate the scope and diversity of the EU's foreign policy and show how areas such as trade, development, environment and energy are inextricable elements of it.

The book examines the EU's key foreign relations ­ - with its neighbourhood, with the US, China and Russia, and with the emerging powers - and argues that the EU's foreign policy needs to be understood not only as a response to crises and conflicts, but also as a means of shaping international structures and influencing long-term processes. Setting its analysis in historical context, this second edition has been updated throughout to take account of contemporary developments following the Lisbon Treaty, and will continue to be an invaluable guide to understanding EU foreign policy.

For supporting materials, please visit the comprehensive online
resource guide 'Exploring EU Foreign Policy' at www.eufp.eu

Table of Contents

Introduction

Abstract
This book is about the foreign policy of the European Union (EU). Applying a broad understanding of what EU foreign policy is, this book does not limit its analysis to foreign policy sensu stricto, namely the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), but examines EU foreign policy sensu lato, which also considers areas such as trade, development, enlargement or external environmental policy as an inherent part of foreign policy.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 1. The Nature of EU Foreign Policy

Abstract
In the introduction, we presented a short overview of the genesis of EU foreign policy, a series of puzzling observations about the relevance of EU’s foreign policy, and an assessment of three episodes in European integration and international relations. All of these elements provide both an illuminating and confusing picture of EU foreign policy. Acknowledging the sometimes contradictory nature of EU foreign policy, this chapter deals with the EU’s peculiar foreign policy architecture.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 2. European Integration and Foreign Policy: Historical Overview

Abstract
The relationship between European integration and the development of a European foreign policy has remained ambiguous from the end of the Second World War to the present day. Nevertheless, European integration has evolved from a primarily economic endeavour to one with a substantive political and foreign policy dimension (see overview with key dates in Table 2.1). Charting this progress, this chapter demonstrates that several obstacles that were highly problematic in the early stages of the process continue to be the stumbling blocks of EU foreign policy today.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 3. The EU’s Foreign Policy System: Actors

Abstract
Single in name, dual in policy-making method, multiple in nature — this is the Union’s institutional framework in a nutshell. An overarching ‘single institutional framework’ exists on paper, but in practice, the powers and responsibilities of the EU’s foreign policy actors are determined through different policy-making methods (see Chapter 1). Painting the actors and procedures in broad strokes is quite easy. In CFSP/CSDP, the Council, under the strategic leadership of the European Council, dominates all stages of policy-making, supported by the High Representative and the European External Action Service (EEAS). On the EU’s external action (such as trade policy and development cooperation) and the external dimension of internal policies (such as environment and energy), the Commission proposes, the Council decides (alone, in co-decision with the European Parliament (EP), or after consultation with the EP) and the Commission implements, controls and manages budgets. In this case, acts are legally binding on the member states, and the Court of Justice (ECJ) provides judicial oversight. This chapter focuses mainly on the political actors, whereas Chapter 4 analyses how the actors interact in foreign policy-making. It examines who or what is behind the façade of each of these actors as well as their varying strengths and weaknesses in delivering and coordinating policy. The member states, also principal actors in EU foreign policy, are analysed in more detail in Chapter 5.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 4. The EU’s Foreign Policy System: Policy-making

Abstract
The Treaties set the boundaries and framework for the EU’s foreign policy actors by conferring upon the institutions specific powers and by detailing the decision-making process. This chapter first reveals the utter complexity of formal competences, decision-making processes, voting procedures and the limits of intervention under which the institutions labour. Viewed in this light, it is remarkable that the EU manages to achieve the foreign policy output that it does. Then, a policy-making perspective is adopted — a view from the ground as it were — exposing the dynamics which drive EU foreign policy and revealing how the EU manages to overcome its institutional and procedural hurdles. Next, we go on to assess an additional layer of complexity in shaping and implementing policy — the financing of EU foreign policy — before finally turning to the difficulties of ensuring consistency between the various policy-making methods and institutions.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 5. EU Foreign Policy and National Foreign Policy

Abstract
EU and member states’ national foreign policies are interconnected and mutually influencing. EU foreign policy is not only developed within and across the CFSP/CSDP, the EU’s external action and external dimension of internal policies, but also through interaction with the foreign policies of member states (see Chapter 1). National foreign policy actors also play an important and varying role in the EU’s policymaking methods (see Chapters 3 and 4). Hence, to understand EU foreign policy, national foreign policies and national foreign policy actors must be examined too.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 6. Key Issues in EU Foreign Policy

Abstract
This chapter discusses four key issues of EU foreign policy: human rights, democracy and rule of law; conflict prevention, crisis management and peace-building; non-proliferation and control of arms exports; and the fight against terrorism. These four issues do not provide an exhaustive list of key priorities of EU foreign policy. However, by analysing these key issues, this chapter aims to clarify the scope and the substance of a range of EU’s foreign policy actions in the areas of CFSP/CSDP, external action and the external dimension of internal policies. The foreign policy objectives of, for instance, trade policy, the EU’s objective of sustainable development or its choice for multilateralism are discussed in other chapters (see respectively Chapters 9, 10 and 13). With regard to the four key issues discussed here, the chapter clarifies the range of instruments available and actors responsible and it assesses the EU’s actions in the light of its declaratory objectives and external relevance.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 7. The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)

Abstract
Chapter 2 argued that different and even conflicting motivations lay at the root of the Maastricht Treaty’s creation of the CFSP. The decision to create CFSP stemmed as much from member states’ interrelational, integration and identity objectives, as from their external objectives (see Chapter 1). For many member states, the main rationale was to allow the EU to manage interstate and inter-institutional dynamics within the Union and not, or not primarily, to deal with the outside world. It thus comes as no surprise that while member states could agree to create a CFSP at Maastricht, they initially had no intention of providing it with the necessary actors and instruments to turn it into a robust foreign policy tool. It was only from the late 1990s onwards that the majority of member states started to consider the CFSP framework useful to pursue external objectives. Since then, this has led to the development of both new actors with specific responsibilities for CFSP (see Chapter 3) and new instruments (see e.g. Chapter 8 on CSDP), making the initially hollow CFSP shell an increasingly useful operational facet of EU foreign policy.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 8. The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)

Abstract
Security and defence have been taboo since the earliest days of the European integration project. The failure to ratify the European Defence Community Treaty in the 1950s and the Fouchet Plans of the early 1960s resulted in defence and security being taken off the ‘menu’. From then onwards, West European cooperation in the field of defence was mainly organized within the framework of NATO, with France largely falling back on its own national defence policy (see Chapter 2).
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 9. Trade, Development and Other External Action

Abstract
This chapter analyses policy fields that are developed under what the Treaty calls the Union’s ‘external action’ (Part five of the TFEU) (see Chapter 1). This includes trade, association and cooperation agreements; enlargement; development cooperation; sanctions; and humanitarian aid. In many cases, the EU’s external action represents the cornerstone of the EU’s foreign policy. These external action policies have shaped EU foreign policy and, in some cases, are foreign policies in and of themselves. They constitute the major instruments of EU foreign policy yet can also hinder the achievement of EU foreign policy objectives.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 10. The External Dimension of Internal Policies

Abstract
In Chapter 1 we argued that the European Union functions as a shield and an agent of globalization, seeking to contain, manage and order this process. Acting alone, member state governments are unable to adequately protect themselves from the negative consequences of globalization, or to steer its direction. Through the Treaties and the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU (see Chapters 3 and 4), the EU has been vested with external competences in a range of ‘Union policies and internal actions’ (Part Three of the TFEU) to try to shape external developments. As we argued in Chapter 1, this means that the foreign policy of the EU is not limited to CFSP/CSDP (Chapters 7 and 8) and external action such as trade, development or enlargement policy (Chapter 9), but also includes internal policies that have an external dimension. This chapter focuses particularly on the external dimension and the foreign policy relevance of three internal policy domains: energy; environment and climate change; and freedom, security and justice. Finally, it briefly discusses two challenges without a real external policy: health and demography. This is not an exhaustive list of internal policies with an external dimension, however. Almost all internal policies have in one way or another an external dimension and the EU is also active internationally e.g. the areas of fisheries, transport or competition policies. The external dimension of other internal policy fields with an external dimension are discussed elsewhere in this book, such as research and technological development policy (see Chapter 8) or agricultural policy (see Chapter 9).
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 11. EU Foreign Policy towards the Neighbourhood

Abstract
This chapter analyses the EU’s foreign policy towards its neighbourhood and more particularly the Western Balkans, the eastern neighbourhood, the Mediterranean and the Middle East. For each region discussed, we assess the extent to which the EU has gone beyond trade and contractual relations towards developing a relational and structural foreign policy (see Chapter 1). This chapter mainly focuses on developments during the last decade in two categories of regions (for the developments in the 1990s and early 2000s, see Keukeleire and MacNaughtan 2008: 255–97). First, the EU’s foreign policy towards the Western Balkans and Turkey is or was developed within the framework of their (potential) membership. This provides the EU with a unique leverage and set of carrots and sticks that it cannot use with regard to the other regions (see also Chapter 9). Second, since 2004, the EU’s relations with most former Soviet republics, the countries of the Mediterranean and the Middle East are structured through the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). We discuss the ENP separately before analysing more in detail the EU’s foreign policy towards the Eastern neighbourhood and the Mediterranean.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 12. Competition with Major Powers: The US, Russia, China, Emerging Powers and Islamism

Abstract
This chapter evaluates the EU’s foreign policy towards and relationship with other major powers. In each case, we not only assess the relationship in terms of relational foreign policy, that is, policies towards crises and conflicts. We also evaluate it in terms of structural foreign policy and we assess the capacity of the other powers to behave as a ‘structural power’, that is, a power that has the capacity to set or influence the organizing principles and rules of the game (see Chapter 1). In addition, this chapter seeks to answer other questions: to what extent are the structures shaped or promoted by these other powers similar to or compatible with those promoted by the EU? And to what extent is the EU able to influence, gain support from or, if necessary, counter those other powers? In so doing, we explore how the EU copes with the strategic opportunities and challenges emanating from the (manifest or potential) structural power of the other major players on the world scene.
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 13. The EU and Multilateral Organizations

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the EU’s position in global governance and particularly on the EU’s relations with multilateral organizations. It first discusses the EU’s choice of multilateralism and its status, coordination and representation practices in international fora. Next, the chapter examines the participation of the EU in the UN, international financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank, and in more informal systems of ‘club governance’ such as the Gx system (i.e. G7, G8 and G20). Finally, it discusses the EU’s position in so-called ‘competing multilateralisms’ in the Asia-Pacific region. The EU’s relations towards some other major international organizations are described elsewhere in this book (see Chapter 8 for NATO and Chapter 9 for WTO).
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux

Chapter 14. Conclusions: Theorizing EU Foreign Policy

Abstract
To conclude, we turn to the implications of this book’s findings for both International Relations and European integration theories. This chapter aims to provide some stepping stones that can be used for a further and deeper theoretical analysis of the EU’s foreign policy and the politics behind it. We consider these theoretical frameworks as lenses through which EU foreign policy and the political dynamics that drive it can be better understood and explained. None of these lenses provide ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answers, but they do offer useful analytical insights that allow for making sense of what we empirically observe. We cannot provide a systematic overview of the vast corpus of theoretical literature. Theoretical analyses as well as summaries can be found in the works of, inter alia, Andreatta (2011), Irondelle et al. (2011), Kratochvil and Tulmets (2010); Kurowska and Breuer (2012). Neither do we present an exhaustive overview of theoretical approaches, as a result of which we do not discuss useful approaches such as foreign policy analysis (Larsen 2009), discourse analysis (Gariup 2010; Jokela 2011a), network analysis (Mérand et al. 2011), governmentality theory (Merlingen 2011) or critical theories (Bailey 2011; Canterbury 2010; Oikonomou 2012).
Stephan Keukeleire, Tom Delreux
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