Probabilistic algorithms are important in cryptography. On the one hand, the algorithms used in encryption and digital signature schemes often include random choices (as in Vernam’s one-time pad or the DSA) and therefore are probabilistic. On the other hand, when studying the security of cryptographic schemes, adversaries are usually modeled as probabilistic algorithms. The subsequent chapters, which deal with provable security properties, require a thorough understanding of this notion. Therefore, we clarify what is meant precisely by a probabilistic algorithm, and discuss the underlying probabilistic model.
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