In this and the following five chapters we will present a selection of established theoretical ‘maps’ or models commonly taught to and used by counsellors. These maps sum up the philosophy, beliefs about people and about problem causation as well as the approach to and method of helping. We set them out in a logical order that is based on their underlying view of problems and, along with O’Hanlon (1993), suggest that they have come in ‘waves’. As we said earlier, the first wave saw difficulties as pathology; the second was problem-focused, seeking to understand problems and their maintenance before attempting to solve them; the third was solution-focused, seeking to understand solutions, with little need to analyse problems.
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