Skip to main content
main-content
Top

About this book

This fully revised edition of the same authors' Governance, Administration and Development is the ideal introduction to public management and the policy process in developing countries. With a new chapter on issues of law and order, it also covers current debates on civil society, aid and intervention, and the relationship of states and markets.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Administration, Management, Governance and Development

Abstract
The decades since the end of World War Two have witnessed an unprecedented drive for economic and social development by the majority of the world’s nations. The leaders of these countries (often referred to as developing countries, the Third World or South) have exhorted their citizens to strive for development and have formulated policies and implemented programmes towards this end. However, the rapid achievement of development goals in the late twentieth century proved elusive for the majority of countries except a small number of ‘tigers’ in East Asia. More recently, however, a number of emerging powers have made significant progress — China, India and Brazil — and a group of emerging ‘middle powers’, sometimes called the Next 11, are achieving economic growth and improved welfare for many of their citizens. Many processes and factors have been identified as contributing to the differing levels of achievement, and prominent amongst these has been the argument that public sector organizations have often performed poorly. They have failed to provide politicians with sound advice on policy, have not delivered services effectively, have taken on inappropriate roles and have been both inefficient and corrupt. Less commonly heard but of equal significance is the argument that countries that have experienced rapid sustained development — for example, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Chile, Brazil and Malaysia — have had effective public sector organizations.
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 2. Organizational Environments: Comparisons, Contrasts and Significance

Abstract
All organizations exist in and relate to environments that affect their operations. The environments in which administrators and policy-makers operate in developing countries are both distinctive and diverse. They are distinct from those environments encountered by their counterparts in the rich countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), but between and sometimes within developing countries there are substantial differences. This means that management models and policies which are successful in one place may be inappropriate in a different environment. Thus, the practices and prescriptions of management in rich countries may be particularly prone to failure when transplanted to radically different developing country contexts. Even South-South transfers must be treated with great care and consideration.
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 3. Law and Order: Insecurity, Crime, Conflict and Violence

Abstract
For classical political theorists the most important role of the state is to provide its citizens with security and ensure law and order. It is surprising therefore that, until recently, development theory and practice have tended to treat law and order (and insecurity and conflict) as a side issue, or assume that the existence of a state means that law and order are somehow automatically in place … or soon will be. Indeed, the neoliberal paradigm that dominated late twentieth century thinking assumed that minimizing the state was a prescription for economic progress — this is no longer credible. As Francis Fukuyama (2005: 162) argues, in the post 9/11 world ‘… the withering away of the state is not a prelude to utopia but to disaster … They [developing countries] do not need extensive states, but they do need strong and effective ones’. In their global analysis of state formation Acemoglu and Robinson (2012: 308) see the Glorious Revolution of 1688 in England as unleashing social forces that helped to gradually promote law and order around the world: ‘…[o]nce in place, the notion of the rule of law not only kept absolutism at bay but also created a type of virtuous circle’. Increasingly, laws applied to everybody, ruler and ruled, ensuring that all were constrained to act within these laws and if it were perceived that someone had not, then they would be guaranteed a fair trial in return. In turn, according to Acemoglu and Robinson (2012), this shift to inclusive institutional forms fostered increased rates of economic growth and accelerated social progress.
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 4. The Policy Process: How and Who

Abstract
Most of what public sector organizations do is routine or reactive. The routine concerns tasks like admitting children to schools, issuing driving licences and authorizing business permits. But there are unexpected and novel occurrences, ‘events, dear boy, events’, which former UK prime minister Harold Macmillan told a journalist were the hardest part of his job (a natural disaster like a flood would be an example). Public agencies’ priority is not to decide what they should be doing, but how best to do it. Such questions of administrative structure and management are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6. Moreover, politicians and civil servants occupy some of their time pursuing personal objectives, capturing resources and playing the political game: ‘court news … who loses and who wins; who’s in, who’s out,’ as Shakespeare’s King Lear puts it, anticipating modern journalistic accounts of government trajectories (for example, Woodward, 2010).
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 5. Structuring and Managing Government Organizations for Developmental Success

Abstract
The growth of bureaucracy or administrative organizations was one of the leading features of twentieth century development. Whether one looks at OECD countries, former and present communist countries or developing countries, bureaucratization was ubiquitous. While some OECD countries have invested great effort into reducing the roles of such organizations, in developing and transitional countries the bureaucracies of the state maintain high visibility and importance in the twenty-first century. Their performance is seen to be one of the major determinants of development success or failure. Our contention, in this chapter, is that the way organizations are structured and oriented to pursue their tasks has considerable influence on what they will achieve.
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 6. Administrative and Civil Service Reform

Abstract
In the early days of what we have come to call the New Public Management (NPM), one of the models which we review in this chapter, there was a great deal of discussion about whether managing in the public and private sectors was essentially the same thing. There are similarities, to be sure. For one thing, the permanent revolution of civil service reform in public management has the same restless, unremitting quality as ‘continuous improvement’ in the private sector. But where continuous improvement was a technique for staying ahead of the competition in the private sector — one of its key handbooks has the subtitle ‘the key to Japan’s competitive success’ (Imai, 1986), civil service reform has been a response to changes in the political and economic environment. In development, it is convenient to date those changes from the independence of countries in Africa and Asia from the 1940s onwards, starting with independence itself in the political sphere, and with other changes in the subsequent decades such as the economic crisis that resulted from the oil price shocks of the 1970s. As we shall see, as a response to those changes, civil service reform has had a very different dynamic from management improvements in the private sector, even though borrowing methods from the private sector (a large part of what constitutes NPM) has been one of the responses to external change. In this chapter we review and analyse the experience of administrative and civil service reform in developing countries.
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 7. Planning for Development: From Writing National Plans to Tackling ‘Wicked Problems’

Abstract
In the Prologue to their classic book on planning and budgeting in developing countries, Caiden and Wildavsky (1990: ii) imagine the unlikely situation of a country’s leader telling it like it actually is on the deceptive but seductive qualities of planning: ‘All right, you want miracles. I can’t produce them but I certainly can produce a plan. In that beautiful eighteen- volume document is a rosy future: day by day it curls at the edges, but the charts and the graphs stay resplendent’ (Caiden and Wildavsky, 1990: ii). Others have pondered the results of planning such as Scott (1998: 3) who observed that ‘the history of Third World development is littered with the debris of huge agricultural schemes and new cities … that have failed their residents’. These images jar with Waterston’s (1965: 2) professional belief in planning during its heyday, that planning is ‘an organized, conscious and continual attempt to select the best available alternatives to achieve specific goals’. Decades later, citing Colm and Geiger (1963: 66), Waterston’s recent thinking about what planning entails is altogether more modest: ‘… survey things as they are, observe what needs to be done, study the means you have to do it with, and then work out practical ways of going about it’ (Waterston, 2006: 430).
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 8. Decentralization within the State: Good Theory but Poor Practice?

Abstract
A major obstacle to the effective performance of public bureaucracies in most developing countries has been the concentration of decision-making authority within central government. Public sector institutions have often been perceived as geographically and socially remote from citizens and acting without knowledge and concerns about actual problems and popular preferences. A common remedy to this malady in developing countries has been decentralization. Identified as ‘the latest fashion in development administration’ (Conyers, 1983) in the early 1980s, decentralization has subsequently transformed into a seemingly essential component of state reform. It appears to be de rigueur for developing countries to have one or more decentralization initiatives. Thus, a World Bank (IEG, 2008) review of its ‘decentralization investments’ between 1990 and 2006 counted 89 recipient countries. Other donors have been equally enthusiastic in their support of decentralization initiatives with one publication even suggesting that we are in ‘the golden era of decentralization’ (Siegle and O’Mahony, 2007: 2) in which the question is not whether one decentralizes but what and how one decentralizes (White and Smoke, 2005).
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 9. Economic Development and the Public Sector: From State Ownership to Enabling Environment

Abstract
From the start of the first development decade to the present, developing country governments have asked the question ‘what should we do about the economy?’ They have appreciated that economic development is one of their major concerns. It is a prerequisite for improving the welfare of citizens, addressing poverty and maintaining political legitimacy (with the masses or with the elite). But there have been multiple answers to their longstanding question and these have varied considerably over time as different ideologies have gained ascendancy and led to different degrees of government involvement in the economy. The policy pendulum has swung from governments perceiving that they need to be directly, and sometimes very heavily, involved in economic production through their own businesses to government being urged to leave economic development largely to the invisible hand of the market. In this chapter, we take a historical view of government’s role in the economy paying particular attention to public enterprises and their privatization, public-private sector cooperation and to the current concern with creating enabling environments for economic development.
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 10. Beyond the State, Beyond the Market? Civil Society and NGOs

Abstract
Alongside the state and the market, civil society is the third pillar of governance, constituting the arena in which individuals and groups mobilize around common interests (from political protests to singing in choirs). Encompassing all non-state, non-market and non-family associations, crucially, it is not the organizations themselves that constitute civil society, but the arena or space in which they participate in dialogue and negotiations to advance their interests. Following the state-driven and market-led development ideologies of earlier times, ‘strengthening civil society’ became an explicit goal in the ‘good governance’ agenda of the 1990s. Its progress and impact, however, has been limited by the development community’s simplistic vision of civil society as a collection of NGOs rather than a space for interaction and negotiation around power.
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt

Chapter 11. Conclusion: What Future for the Public Sector?

Abstract
Dominant ideas about the role of public sector organizations have changed dramatically. In the early development decades, the 1950s and 1960s, the public sector was awarded undisputed primacy as the creator and implementer of strategies for development. Its technically skilled, and simultaneously altruistic, elites would guide economies and societies along the path to modernization. In the 1970s, critical self-reflection and assault from radical development theory saw the image of an efficacious public sector severely damaged. Could it generate and maintain the impetus for development? By the 1980s, the answer to this question was clearly and widely articulated. The public sector was a pariah that actually hindered economic and social development: it was not the solution, it was the problem. The time had come to roll back the state by privatizing the public enterprises so vigorously promoted in an earlier era and downsizing the ministries which had been encouraged to expand into ever more areas of social and economic life. The invisible hand of the market would unleash the mechanisms to realize the developmental aspirations of the Third World.
Mark Turner, David Hulme, Willy McCourt
Additional information