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About this book

This major comparative text on urban planning, and the global and regional context in which it takes place, examines what have been traditionally regarded as 'world cities' (New York, London, Tokyo) and also a range of other important cities in America, Europe and Asia. The authors show the role planning has played in the way cities have responded to the forces of globalization, and argue for the importance of diverse – rather than one-size-fits-all – planning practices.

This fully revised second edition systematically brings the debates on the impact of globalization right up to date and provides integrated coverage of the latest planning theory and practice. It also contains extended analysis of the implications of the rapid growth of Chinese cities such as Shanghai, Hong Kong and Beijing. New material is included on the impact of globalization on poorer mega-cities like Mumbai and Johannesburg.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The major cities of the world have undergone transformation since the 1980s. City centres, skylines and waterfront developments appear to be similar wherever you happen to be. Cities compete to build the tallest buildings in the world. New York provided the model that was to be envied and imitated, especially after it escaped from near bankruptcy in the 1970s. The booming La Defense office quarter in Paris marketed itself as ‘Manhattan sur Seine’. This quickly became ‘Tokyo sur Seine’ as the strength of the Japanese economy pushed forward the global claims of its capital. Deregulation of financial markets, the dramatic transformation of London Docklands and new cultural attractions firmly established London as one among the leading group of cities. London, New York and Tokyo were singled out as the ‘global cities’ in Saskia Sassen’s influential book in 1991. Economic globalization has been the driving force of this change. Whereas in the past world cities were defined by their imperial roles (e.g. Vienna, Berlin) or by the size of their population, the new world leaders are there because of the economic role they play in globalization. Above all they are the financial hubs of a new economic system.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Conceptual Framework

Chapter 2. Global Transformation

Abstract
In this chapter we explore the globalization debate and in particular those arguments that link globalization and cities. We focus on the globalization of economic activity and its social ramifications, as we see this as the aspect that has the biggest impact on the physical development of cities. We consider some of the interpretations of global economic crisis in recent years and also the continuing international concern with climate change and appropriate responses. In the second part of the chapter we focus on the international institutions concerned with economic and environmental issues and the implications of such global governance for world cities. The review of the globalization debates and contemporary changes in cities frames our approach and our choice of cities for detailed analysis in later chapters. This chapter integrates many relevant discussions on the current trends that are shaping the urban environment and provides an overarching framework for our analysis of planning in world cities. In the first section we explore the debates and different viewpoints in the literature on globalization.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Chapter 3. The World City Debate

Abstract
In this chapter we explore the way global processes are affecting the economic and social composition of cities. In other words, what are these new pressures on cities that are leading to change and hence creating the new context for planning? The various ‘spaces of flow’ have different demands upon the physical landscape. As we said earlier, some may involve virtual transactions and have no physical manifestation while others, although operating globally, may still need a physical location or create new demands on the limited resource of urban land. This relationship between wider economic process and localities is a core concern of urban theory. Harvey (1982) conceptualizes the relationship as a ‘spatial fix’ for capital at particular times and places. This need for a spatial fix, for global flows to be held down in particular places, links globalization processes, the political decision-making process and the planning system. We need therefore to explore the impact of global change on urban economies, social structures and the urban decision-making processes that seek to shape spatial development. Some of the social demands on planning result from the impact of global economic change on the city level, while others may arise from local social needs.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Chapter 4. Planning and Governance: Nation States, City Regions and Urban Politics

Abstract
In this chapter we aim to locate the planning of world cities in current debates about changing scales of governance and political context. In Chapter 2 we examined changes in international governance and considered some of the impacts of international bodies on planning. We now pick up that debate reviewing changing national contexts, shifting scales of governance within nation states and debates about the driving forces behind urban politics. In the final section of the chapter we draw the discussion together and summarize some of the key planning challenges facing world cities.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Chapter 5. Globalizing Cities Outside the Core Global Regions

Abstract
In the remaining chapters we will be exploring the development of world cities in the three core global regions. However, as we saw in Chapter 3 the definition of a world city is not precise. Although the major candidates for world city status can all be found in these core regions, there are many cities in the rest of the world that have been developing rapidly in response to the forces of economic globalization. In this chapter we will review a sample of such cities, ones that have imposed their presence on the world scene over the last ten years. They have established a degree of linkage into the global economy. This has had an impact on certain areas within the city, although the limited volume of such global activity has not meant they have necessarily risen very high up the world city hierarchy. One of the key issues we wish to explore is the way such cities have employed the world city rhetoric in their strategic policies and the implication this has for planning. So the chapter has a number of aims. It will explore further the critique raised in Chapter 3 that the world city hypothesis dominates the exploration of cities and is not necessarily the most appropriate approach to ‘ordinary cities’ (Amin and Graham, 1997). It will allow us to review a few cities outside the core region and raise the question of whether these differ significantly regarding their strategic planning dilemmas.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

North America

Chapter 6. Cities in the North America Region

Abstract
This chapter sets a context for the discussion of New York (Chapter 7) and of potential contenders for world city status in the region (Chapter 8). It does this by first taking a broad view of economic and spatial trends impacting on cities in North America. In this section of the book we are looking at cities in Canada, the United States and Mexico, signatories to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Compared with cities in Europe or the Pacific Asia regions American cities have been more self-reliant, lacking the extensive interventions of welfare states, supranational policy or the highly interventionist developmental state that we will encounter in later chapters. The North American city is, as Siegel (2002) suggests, more dependent on the private sector and on its own revenues. Reactions to the economic crisis of 2008 brought forward national recovery plans and the prospect in the United States of a more active Federal scale of intervention. Later in the chapter we examine some of the strands of the 2009 American economic stimulus plan (ARRA, 2009).
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Chapter 7. New York: Capital of the World

Abstract
World city New York certainly has a long history. Since the early 1800s it has been the largest city in North America. Throughout its history the city has attracted large numbers of international immigrants. New York was the busiest North American port between 1820 and the 1960s. The city was the dominant financial centre throughout the twentieth century. The new entertainment industries of the twentieth century started up in New York, although the growth of Los Angeles removed the city’s hegemony over mass culture (Baughman, 1993). However, Broadway and the international art market retain some of New York’s dominance in the arts, and the city’s cultural preeminence is represented by its museums (the city has both the largest collection of works of art in the country — the Metropolitan Museum of Art — and the second largest — the Brooklyn Museum of Art).
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Chapter 8. The Challenge to New York’s World City Dominance: Toronto, Mexico City, Chicago or Los Angeles?

Abstract
By the early nineteenth century New York was the largest city in North America and the dominant link with Europe. The city continued to outpace rivals. Its unique role in receiving European immigrants, in banking and in importing and displaying European culture gave it a distinctive role on the North American continent. There is nowhere like it. This distinctiveness has not always led to happy relationships between the city and the national capital, and from time to time other rivals have emerged. In this chapter we look at potential challengers to the dominance of New York City. Two cities — that developed a generation apart (Abu-Lughod, 1999) — offered at various points commercial and cultural competition to New York. For a time Chicago dominated continental trade and Los Angeles usurped New York’s cultural leadership of the new media of the twentieth century. Both these cities have been the source of new ideas in urban theory that have influenced the very tools for understanding great cities (see Dear, 2002).
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Europe

Chapter 9. European Integration and Competitive City Regions

Abstract
The distinctiveness of the European region lies in the international institutions of the European Union (EU). Compared to our other two global regions, there is an additional scale of strategic thinking, and this level of governance has substantially changed the prospects of cities over the last twenty years. The single European market, the development of a borderless Europe and, since 2002 for eleven member states, the single currency, have exposed European cities to intense regional competition. Expansion of the EU has further impacts on cities. The geographical boundary of the EU is not fixed. Ten new member states joined in 2004 creating an economic and social union of over 370 million people and Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007. Further expansion especially the inclusion of Turkey is politically controversial. In Central and Eastern Europe the journey from socialist to ‘Europeanized’ economies has been slow. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall Central and Eastern European states have suffered economic collapse, although with some recovery in a limited number of cities. Globalization in this part of Europe is seen as a process of ‘transition’: the destination for cities is the successful West European city. Enlarging the population of the EU and the space of Europe has, as we shall see, clear implications for conceptualizing a European system of cities.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Chapter 10. London: From Fragmentation to World City Promotion

Abstract
Over the last twenty years London has experienced dramatic changes in its governmental structures, including a period with no metropolitan government at all. It can therefore be seen as an excellent laboratory for the analysis of the interaction of governance and strategic planning.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Chapter 11. Europe’s World City Contenders: Paris, Berlin, Barcelona … Istanbul?

Abstract
London and Paris have headed the European list since the eighteenth century. Other historic world cities such as Vienna and Berlin challenged in the nineteenth century and early twentieth centuries and then faded. Then, as the imperial roles of London and Paris receded in the twentieth century, the main challenge for global importance came from Moscow. Since the end of the 1980s, however, Moscow has dropped out of the list of leading world cities. While still an important national capital the city’s economic characteristics leave it lagging behind the leaders in a new European hierarchy. Reunification of Germany reestablished Berlin as its national capital. In the early 1990s there were expectations that Berlin could again become a world city, taking a new role both within Germany and at the heart of a Europe that was moving eastwards. The new geography of Europe, including the ‘gateway’ cities we discussed in Chapter 9, suggests there may be new contenders for world city status. However the only well-established claim to challenge London comes from Paris and we devote a large part of the chapter to reviewing this. At a level well below these two cities there are a number of others that are developing a niche position, such as in culture or tourism.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Pacific Asia

Chapter 12. Pacific Asia: Strong State Leadership and Rapid Urban Transformation

Abstract
Asia is central to the debate over whether the international economy is one system or an interplay between three regional economies. The dramatic collapse of many national economies in the region in the late 1990s demonstrated the interconnected nature of global finance, and also led to a vigorous debate over the impact of globalization on the region (Kelly and Olds, 1999). The rise in the international status of cities such as Singapore and Hong Kong and the economic strength of national economies such as Japan mean that any discussion on economic globalization has to encompass these cities and countries. The sheer size of China and its entry into the global economy is another reason why this part of the world is likely to have an increasing impact on the world stage. However, as we will see, there are many differences between the Asia Pacific region and the North American and European regions. The international division of labour has been a significant aspect of the economic history of the region. It is expected that the annual growth rate of the urban population in the region over the next 25 years will be about four times that in North America or Europe (Douglass, 2000). The cities have witnessed some of the most dramatic city centre transformations of the last decade.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Chapter 13. Tokyo: Shaping a World City in the Face of Economic Turbulence

Abstract
External economic changes have had a significant impact on Tokyo’s global status. At the same time the state has taken a leading role in attempting to shape Tokyo’s response to these external forces. A study of Tokyo illustrates, in a particularly clear fashion, many of the issues raised in the discussions we reviewed in Chapters 3 and 4. It confronts the claim to convergence, that is, that all cities will be forced into closer conformity with New York or London. As the major city within the developmental-state approach, Tokyo also raises many questions about the withering away, or restructuring, of the national state.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Chapter 14. Regional Competition for World City Status — Mega Projects and State-Led Visions in Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Beijing

Abstract
In Chapter 12 we set out the key developments that have affected urban policy in the Pacific Asia region. In the last chapter we explored how these impacted on Tokyo, focusing on the way that views of Tokyo as a world city have played a role in shaping its policy. In this chapter we examine the other leading cities of the region. Studies that seek to classify Pacific Asian cities according to their world city status normally, after the obvious case of Tokyo, mention Hong Kong and Singapore at a secondary level. This is then followed by a range of candidates often including Taipei, Shanghai, Beijing, Seoul and Kuala Lumpur. However, it is important to realize that such hierarchies are not fixed. Shifts have taken place in the relative importance of cities in the region over the last twenty years. As we saw in the last chapter, the dominant position of Tokyo has been challenged by Hong Kong and Singapore.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley

Conclusions

Chapter 15. Planning World Cities

Abstract
We have been exploring how the strategic planning of the major cities of the world has been changing over the past thirty years or so. We now need to reflect on the reasons for any apparent similarities in the ways in which cities respond to the forces of globalization. Over this period the fortunes of cities throughout the world have changed. Rapid urbanization has created more mega cities and for these cities urban growth brings distinctive problems of informal settlements, inadequate infrastructure and social welfare provision. The latest development in the establishment of world cities has come from the rise of urban China. Meanwhile the global regions of North America, Europe and Pacific Asia continue to be home to the leading centres of financial globalization and developing webs of cross-border flows and interconnectedness. Tokyo, New York and London still find themselves at the top of city hierarchies, although in Tokyo’s case rather precariously positioned. For the time being the three leading world cities continue to share economic fortunes and display a degree of similarity in their strategic planning. These leading world cities however do not have it all their own way and the world city hierarchy is not stable. As we have seen, Shanghai and Beijing have emerging claims, although the future for Hong Kong as a distinct world city is less assured than it was.
Peter Newman, Andy Thornley
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