To do this you must refer to the body of knowledge that we already have, so you’re standing on the shoulders of scientists who have gone before you as you reach for the sky. This means that you read textbooks to get the overall picture and learn the language of science, which has differing dialects for the different disciplines. Then, as you become more knowledgeable and specialised in a particular area, you will need to probe deeply into current thinking, searching through journals for academic papers because that is how front-line scientists publish their work.
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