In the decade after 1763 the colonies developed a ferocious self-assertiveness that would lead to a full-scale war of independence and separation from British rule. The presence of aggressive French and Indian neighbours had placed a severe limit on any likely colonial dissatisfaction with British authority, as royal forces might at any time be needed to combat invasion. Removing the French factor gave the colonists more liberty to consider their long-term goals and aspirations. The British in turn had to consider the complex needs of a more diverse population. Apart from the British colonists, imperial subjects in North America now included the Catholic, French-speaking residents of Canada and the Indian allies who had played so critical a role in earlier victories. The Indians were a source of special concern as a series of worrying frontier wars erupted in 1763: although associated with the name of the chieftain Pontiac, these probably reflected a lingering French influence.
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