At the end of the nineteenth century, wars throughout the world clearly showed the desire of the advanced industrial nations to extend or consolidate their overseas empires. In 1898 the United States fought Spain to protect its predominance in the Caribbean and to establish more firmly its influence in the Pacific. A year later in South Africa, Britain commenced a bitter struggle with the Boers for the retention of some of the finest jewels, both literal and metaphorical, of its great Empire. Then, in 1900, the U.S.A, Britain, Germany, France, Austria—Hungary, Italy, Japan and Russia sent their troops into China to crush the Boxer Rebellion, thus guaranteeing their continued influence there.
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