It is necessary to impose some limitations on the scope of the chapter content and therefore I only refer to the child safeguarding processes in England. Readers can find resources relating to the other nation states in Suggested further reading. At the outset, we need to appreciate that what constitutes child abuse changes over time and across cultures. In the nineteenth century, small children were sent up chimneys and slow learners were brutally thrashed, activities which would clearly be deemed abusive in modern times. Equally, we might look back in years to come and wonder how physical chastisement of children by parents remained lawful well into the twenty-first century.
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