To reiterate once more: Lenin and the Bolsheviks instigated the October Revolution in the name of the international proletariat, but always assumed that a socialist revolution could not succeed in Russia alone, and that it was necessary for its survival there for revolutions to take place in the more advanced countries of the capitalist West. Yet the irony was that socialism did not then come to Munich or Manchester, but it did come, in 1921, to Mongolia. Following the defeat of Nazism in Germany the Third World would actually become the main theatre of contestation between the Soviet Union and the United States. Although the sources of the Cold War were in Europe and its foundations remained there until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the major arena of superpower competition in both ideological and geo-strategic terms was in the Third World (what is now referred to as the Global South). On the eve of the October Revolution European or American colonial powers had direct rule over much of the Caribbean, the Middle East, Africa and Asia, and even as war broke out once more in 1939 around one billion of the world’s population were still subject to colonial rule (Bradley, 2011, p. 464). This made fertile ground for contestation between the USA and the USSR, as national liberation movements sought independence from imperial control.
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