In this chapter we bring together the outcomes of our studies in Chapters 1 to 5. With regard to Dickens’s techniques, whether in his manipulation of characters or themes, or in his sentence-by-sentence rhetorical patterns, we have reached some insights that can be summarised: 1.Dickens’s writing is always elaborately patterned;2.Dickens is exceptionally present, keeping his reader company, and urging us to join him in his emotions and to agree with his opinions;3.Dickens usually begins characterisation by depicting a grotesque. Some characters later develop psychological or emotional depth;4.Dickens uses a range of shallow or ‘grotesque’ background characters to create an illusion of a real population for the world of the text;5.Dickens’s writing is usually rich in figurative ideas; often these ideas are ‘literalised’ and developed subsequently, giving rise to a narrative mode that depends on metaphor; and6.Dickens sometimes allocates significance to elements of the narrative, as symbols; and occasionally he undertakes a narrative project we could call ‘magic realism’.
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