main-content

The fifth edition of this classic textbook sets out the essential techniques needed for a solid grounding in the surveying.

The popular and trusted textbook covers the traditional topics such as levelling, measurement of angles, measuring distances, and how to carry out traversing and compute coordinates, as well as the latest technological advances. It is packed with clear illustrations, exercises and worked examples, making it both a comprehensive study aid for students and a reliable reference tool for practitioners.

This text is aimed at students studying surveying as either part of a civil engineering, building or construction course or as a separate discipline. It is also useful for students who undertake surveying as an elective subject and is a useful resource for practising surveyors.

### Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
After studying this section you should be able to explain what geospatial engineering and geomatics are and why these terms have been introduced. You should be aware that engineering surveying is used extensively in building and construction, but that this can also involve many specialist areas of surveying. You should have an outline knowledge of the equipment and methods used in engineering surveys and have some appreciation of the way in which these are expected to develop. You should also have a clear idea of the aims of this book.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 2. Levelling

Abstract
After studying this section you should understand the differences between horizontal and vertical lines or surfaces and why these are important in levelling. You should know what a levelling datum is and be aware that a national levelling datum has been set up by the Ordnance Survey and is known as Ordnance Datum Newlyn (ODN). You should be aware that bench marks are points of known height specified on a chosen datum and that these can either be Temporary or Transferred Bench Marks (TBMs) or Ordnance Survey Bench Marks (OSBMs). In addition, you should appreciate the difficulties of using an OSBM for any levelling and why these are being replaced by GNSS-based heights.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 3. Angle measurement

Abstract
The angle measuring system of a total station is equivalent to that of an electronic theodolite. Electronic theodolites and total stations are the predominant instruments for angle measurement on site and elsewhere, but optical theodolites are still in use. This chapter describes how theodolites are used for angle measurement, but concentrates mostly on electronic theodolites. Total stations are described in Chapter 5. Figure 3.2 shows two points A and B and a theodolite or total station T set up on a tripod above a ground point G. Point A is higher than the instrument and is above the horizontal plane through T, whereas B is lower and below the horizontal plane. At T, the instrument is mounted a vertical distance h above G on its tripod.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 4. Distance measurement: taping

Abstract
Horizontal and vertical distances are used in mapping, control surveys and engineering design work. Slope distances and vertical distances are used when setting out on construction sites. If the correct parameters are known (see Section 4.3), it is possible to convert from slope distances to horizontal differences and vice versa. Slope distances are usually measured by laying the tape on the surface of the ground or structure, as shown in Figure 4.2(a). However, when measuring over very steep surfaces or undulating ground, the tape may be held horizontally, as in Figure 4.2(b), this technique being known as stepping. Occasionally, it may be necessary to suspend a tape between two points, as in Figure 4.2(c). Vertical distances (or height differences) are obtained by allowing a tape to hang freely with a weight attached to its zero end. A common application of this is in the transference of height from floor to floor in a multi-storey building by measuring up
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 5. Total stations

Abstract
In the previous chapter, the various types of distance that can be measured were described, together with taping methods. Although taping and theodolites are used regularly on site, total stations are also used extensively in surveying, civil engineering and construction because they can measure both distances and angles simultaneously, with relative ease and to a high degree of precision. This chapter serves as an introduction to the total station and its applications in surveying. A typical total station is shown in Figure 5.1. The appearance of this is very similar to an electronic theodolite, but the difference is that it is combined with a distance measurement component which is fitted around the telescope. Because the instrument combines both angle and distance measurement in the same unit, it is known as an integrated total station which can measure horizontal and vertical angles as well as slope distances.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 6. Traversing and coordinate calculations

Abstract
All measurements taken for engineering surveys are based on a network of horizontal and vertical reference points called control points. These networks are used on site in the preparation of maps and plans, they are required for dimensional control (setting out) and are essential in deformation monitoring. Because all survey work needs control points, at the start of any engineering or construction work a control survey must be carried out in which the positions of all the control points to be used are established. For the majority of engineering work, the positions of horizontal control points are specified as plane rectangular coordinates (equivalent to X and Y coordinates used in mathematics). This is normal practice for construction sites as survey work is greatly simplified and fewer mistakes are made when using rectangular coordinates for setting out and other dimensional work. One of the techniques used to determine the positions of control points for small construction sites is traversing, which can be extended using intersection and resection.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 7. Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Abstract
Alongside conventional methods of surveying using instruments such as levels, theodolites and total stations, surveyors and engineers now use satellite surveying systems for many routine applications on site. Developed by the USA, the Global Positioning System, or simply GPS, is the predominant satellite surveying system in use at present and this is something that is now familiar to most people. Today, walkers can use a handheld GPS receiver, as shown in Figure 7.1, to locate their position on a chart or map, and motorists can have a dashboard mounted display for this - many different versions of these devices are now available. GPS has found widespread use in aviation, navigation, scientific areas such as weather prediction and oceanography, and for locating features in Geographic Information Systems. It is used in site surveying for everyday tasks ranging from control surveys and setting out to machine.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 8. National coordinates and transformations

Abstract
In previous chapters where control surveys have been discussed, position has been defined as an easting and northing on a plane rectangular grid together with a height (or reduced level) based on an arbitrary datum or mean sea level. This is a very convenient way of defining position in surveying and even though we know the Earth is curved, a flat surface is assumed for most engineering surveys. The advantage of adopting this approach to control surveys and setting out is that it greatly simplifies the calculations required for both horizontal coordinates and heights. As the size of a survey or construction project increases, it is no longer possible to assume a plane surface for defining position because the effect of the curvature of the Earth is too large to ignore. For normal work, this occurs when the survey is longer than about 10–15 km in any direction but nearly all engineering projects do not exceed this limit.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 9. Measurements, errors and specifications

Abstract
In the previous chapters, the types of measurement that are fundamental to engineering surveying have been identified as horizontal distance and vertical distance (or height), together with horizontal and vertical angles. As shown throughout the book, many different techniques can be used tomeasure these quantities and many different instruments and methods have been developed for this purpose. Engineering and site surveying, then, is a process that involves taking observations andmeasurements with awide range of electronic, optical andmechanical instruments, some ofwhich are very sophisticated. However, even when using the best equipment and methods, it is still impossible to take observations that do not include some occasional mistakes or biases or which are completely free of small variations. These errors are very important since they are a property of all measurements and it is desirable that everyone who uses survey equipment and methods understands the errors they might be subject to and what magnitudes these might have under normal circumstances.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 10. Detail surveying and mapping

Abstract
After studying this section you should understand that one of the purposes of a control network is to provide a base on which to build a survey plan. You should know what is meant by the term scale and you should understand that plans can be produced at a number of different scales. You should appreciate that although hand drawings are still undertaken it is much more common for plans to be produced using computer hardware and software. You should also be aware of the step-by-step procedures involved in the production of a contoured survey plan.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 11. Setting out

Abstract
A definition often used for setting out is that it is the reverse of surveying. What is meant by this is that whereas surveying is the process of producing a plan or map of a particular area, setting out begins with the plan and ends with the various elements of a particular engineering project correctly positioned in the area. This definition can be misleading, since it implies that setting out and surveying are opposites. This is not true. Most of the techniques and equipment used in surveying are also used in setting out and it is important to realise that setting out is simply one application of surveying. A better definition of setting out is provided by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in its publication ISO 7078: 1985 Building Construction - Procedures for Setting Out, Measurement and Surveying - Vocabulary and Guidance Notes.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 12. Circular curves

Abstract
After studying this section you should have an appreciation of the different types of horizontal curves that are used in the design of roads and railways. In the design of roads and railways, straight sections of road or track are connected by curves of constant or varying radius, as shown in Figure 12.1. The purpose of the curves is to deflect a vehicle travelling along one of the straights safely and comfortably through the angle after studying this section you should be able to explain what geospatial engineering and geomatics are and why these terms have been introduced. You should be aware that engineering surveying is used extensively in building and construction, but that this can also involve many specialist areas of surveying. You should have an outline knowledge of the equipment and methods used in engineering surveys and have some appreciation of the way in which these are expected to develop. You should also have a clear idea of the aims of this book.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 13. Transition curves

Abstract
After studying this section you should be aware of the limitations of circular curves due to the forces that act on vehicles as they travel around the curves. You should understand that transition curves can be used to introduce these forces gradually and uniformly, thereby increasing the safety of passengers in the vehicles. You should know what composite curves and wholly transitional curves are and you should be familiar with superelevation and appreciate how it can be used to further improve the safety of passengers.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 14. Vertical curves

Abstract
After studying this section you should know what gradients are and that vertical curves are required to enable passengers in vehicles to travel safely and comfortably from one gradient to another. You should be aware that in the UK the Department of Transport recommends maximum and minimum gradient values for all new highways. You should appreciate that vertical curves can either be crest curves or sag curves and you should know how to differentiate between them. You should understand that the main purposes of vertical curves are to provide adequate visibility, and passenger comfort and safety.
John Uren, Bill Price

### Chapter 15. Earthwork quantities

Abstract
In many engineering projects, large parcels of land are required for the site and huge amounts of material have to be moved in order to form the necessary embankments, cuttings, foundations, basements, lakes and so on, that have been specified in the design. Suitable land and materials can be very expensive and, if a project is to be profitable to the construction company involved, it is essential that its engineers make as accurate a measurement as possible of the earthwork quantities involved, that is the areas of land the project will occupy and the volumes of material required in its construction. The initial purchase of the land areas and the subsequent movement of the earthwork volumes can often form a considerable proportion of the overall cost of the project. Only by making accurate measurements of such quantities can appropriate estimates of the costs involved be obtained for inclusion in the tender documents. These are prepared during the planning of a project and include all the items relating to the construction of the proposed Works, including drawings, calculations, quantities and specifications. They are discussed further in Section 11.1.
John Uren, Bill Price