In the 1980s, the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ)’s socio-economic promises hollowed out, Yugoslavia’s ideological foundations were challenged, and individual nations’ nationalisms became ever more prominent. Tito’s political generation had mostly predeceased him, and younger officials could not match his charismatic wartime record or his generation’s interpersonal ties [148: 45]. The reformists dismissed in 1972 might have been a ‘lost generation’ who could have met the crisis head-on, but they were not yet politically welcome back [11: 56]. Instead, the 1974 constitution had replaced Tito with a collective federal presidency (one representative from each republic and province) rather than promote any individual to Tito’s status and seem to place a single republic and nation at the forefront. This collective presidency, though symbolizing ‘brotherhood and unity’, proved unequal to the economic and ideological crises of the 1980s .
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