After the final separation of fire from the United Kingdom in 1922 many constitutional issues remained for the United Kingdom, but for nearly half a century one seemed completely settled: the territorial boundaries of the Union encompassed England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, and constitutional authority was centralized in the political institutions of the capital - in Parliament, the Executive and the Crown. The resurgence of nationalism in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (described in later chapters) disrupted constitutional agreement about state boundaries, to the point where Scotland nearly seceded in the 2014 referendum. But another profound disruption is now being created. The idea of a single supreme constitutional authority is increasingly at issue. As powers are devolved to institutions like the Scottish Parliament the question of the relationship between the centre and the geographical parts of the United Kingdom is becoming increasingly contentious.
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