Since the European Communities were created in the 1950s, European integration has advanced in many ways. One, much-used and very useful,analytical device for capturing the nature of the ways in which integration has advanced is to distinguish between deepening and widening. Deepening refers to the development of vertical integration: that is, to the ever more intense nature of the integration that exists between member states. Widening refers to the development of horizontal integration: that is, to the growing geographical spread of the European Community (EC)/European Union (EU) via the accessions of new member states. This chapter outlines the most important aspects of the deepening of the integration process. The examination does not take the form of a detailed account of the unfolding of every aspect of EC/EU deepening. For those who want such an account, a useful starting point is Dinan, 2014.
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