That the EU has the trappings of a new level of European governance is reflected in the extent to which responsibility for making policy has been transferred from the exclusive domain of national governments to their representatives working within the EU institutions. Much policy is now shaped at the EU level, many of the actions of national governments are determined by new laws and policies adopted by the EU, and in some areas — notably trade and agricultural policy — the member states now take part in the policy process as a collective. The EU institutions, and the representatives of the member states working within those institutions, have become productive policy entrepreneurs and policy shapers — certainly more so than can be said of the administrations of any conventional intergovernmental organization.
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- The EU Policy Process
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- Chapter 6