By the summer of 1870 deep future-oriented war-planning processes had been developing in the kingdom of Prussia for over 70 years. Three, almost four, generations of officers had wrestled with this novel technology. But little showed outside; 1864 did not reveal much. Denmark was a minor kingdom, a small war in the snow. And 1866, though a major surprise upending power relationships in central Europe, did not catch everyone’s attention.
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