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For a business or other organization, deciding to use a cloud implementation and then choosing a cloud service model and how the cloud will be deployed are difficult problems. The decision depends on the role of the cloud service within the organization and the relationship between the cloud consumer and provider and the service provided. The decision is financial, managerial, and technical. It requires an understanding of what a cloud is, the benefits from cloud deployments, and the risks and obstacles to a successful deployment. And it requires an understanding of the unique requirements of managing a service deployed on a cloud.
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Note that consumers do not always pay with money. Often, using a service yields valuable information about the consumer to the provider of the service. The provider then uses that information for a profit. For example, a search engine may use information it obtains about consumer interests for a directed advertising service and charge the users of the advertising service.
Mell, Peter; Grance, Timothy. “The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing.” Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. September 2011. Accessed November 2013. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf
Clouds do not always supply only virtual resources; they can offer physical resources as well. However, many of the advantages of cloud implementations are dependent upon the speed and flexibility of virtual deployment. Therefore, clouds only rarely are used to supply physical resources.
See http://dmtf.org/standards/cloud for a discussion of CIMI and other DMTF cloud initiatives.
See www.openstack.org/ (accessed August 24, 2015) for more information.
Advertisers’ site hits during the 2014 Super Bowl were reported to average nearly a two-thirds increase over normal traffic levels. See www.cmo.com/articles/2014/2/6/mobile_the_real_winn.html . Accessed March 25, 2014.
Organizations have tried in some ways to use some of this spare capacity. Hardware virtualization has been the most successful of these ways but works well only when there is a substantial pool of hardware and loads with different peak usages. Virtualization is one of the first steps toward a private cloud implementation.
On-premise is also used frequently. Sticklers point out that this is contrary to standard English in which premise refers to a proposition that is agreed upon as the basis for a succeeding argument. Premises refers to the facilities that house a business.
See www.fcc.gov/maps/broadband-availability . Notice how quickly service drops off away from metropolitan areas. A Federal Communications Commission report ( www.fcc.gov/reports/eighth-broadband-progress-report ) reports that 19 million Americans do not have minimal broadband connectivity.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the protocol used for most computer-to-computer network communications. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used for most Internet communication. HTTP uses TCP/IP as its lower-level transmission protocol. Read more about TCP/IP and HTTP in Chapter 10 of Cloud Standards (Apress, 2012).
Richard M. Stallman. “What Does That Server Really Serve?” Boston Review, March 18, 2010. Accessed January 13, 2014. www.bostonreview.net/richard-stallman-free-software-DRM . Stallman is the founder of the open source movement and holds strong opinions about access to software. Many disagree with his views.
Availability refers to the percentage of the total time a system is expected to be available that is actually available. A system that is supposed to be available for 100 hours but is unavailable for 1 hour of the 100 hours has 99 percent availability. 99.999 percent (4 seconds down in 100 hours) availability is often held up as a high level of availability. This level is commonly called five nines. One hour down out of 100 hours is called two nines, and so on.
The deleted books were, ironically, written by George Orwell. See www.nytimes.com/2009/07/18/technology/companies/18amazon.html . Accessed August 24, 2015. In another case, Amazon deleted the entire contents of the Kindle of a consumer suspected of objectionable activity. See www.theguardian.com/money/2012/oct/22/amazon-wipes-customers-kindle-deletes-account . Accessed August 24, 2015. In both cases, the company later admitted to making a mistake.
Owned when applied to e-books is not traditional possession. In fact, the relationship between the reader of an electronic book and its supplier is more accurately characterized as licensed or leased than owned, but having a book on your reader at least feels like you own it.
This is changing. Heavily customized and carefully tailored applications used to be the hallmark of a large application installation, but many enterprises have acknowledged that the maintenance and support of bespoke software is a burden. This has led to a reevaluation of requirements and often a decision to use off-the-shelf or SaaS solutions.
This situation may be changing. Network as a Service (NaaS) is being offered to businesses, and wireless networks as a service for home networks may not be far behind.
A click-through agreement is a license or other legal document that a user accepts by clicking a screen, typically when a system is installed.
Operating systems may be the exception here.
This example posits a service in which the help-desk technicians are not outsourced but the help-desk software and storage are deployed on a cloud provider. The cloud service could be SaaS, PaaS, or IaaS depending on how much of the help-desk implementation is delegated to the cloud provider.
Internal SLAs are often called operating level agreements (OLAs).
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