The notion of counter-hegemony is one that has been used increasingly to understand a process that confronts the central principles of a hegemonic order. As a term, it is interesting concept and seems to provide a number of different potential outcomes. As a concept, it has been associated principally with Gramsci, though it is not one that Gramsci himself used. His concern was with building a hegemonic project that could challenge the capitalist structures of his day. As I outlined in Chapter 4, this was largely built on a Leninist strategy. As Lenin argued for a socialist movement that could fashion a working-class consciousness, then so did Gramsci (Joseph 2002). As we saw in Chapter 4, however, Gramsci’s understanding of a hegemonic strategy was far deeper than Lenin’s, as it tackled the facets and complexities of civil society and popular belief. Gramsci argued that it needed to challenge existing norms and practices that are central to the existing order.
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