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The invention of the integrated circuit allowed many transistors to be combined on a single chip, and it was another revolution in computing. The integrated circuit placed the previously separated transistors, resistors, capacitors and wiring circuitry onto a single chip made of silicon or germanium. The integrated circuit shrunk the size and cost of making electronics, and it had a major influence on the design of later computers leading to faster and more powerful machines. The germanium-based integrated circuit was invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments, and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor did subsequent work on silicon-based integrated circuits. Moore’s law on the exponential growth of transistor density on an integrated circuit is discussed, as well as its relevance to the computing power of electronic devices.
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1 nanometre (nm) is equal to 10 −9 m.
go back to reference Moore G (1965) Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Elect Mag 38:14–117 Moore G (1965) Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Elect Mag 38:14–117
go back to reference O’Regan G (2013) Giants of computing. Springer, London CrossRefMATH O’Regan G (2013) Giants of computing. Springer, London CrossRefMATH
go back to reference O’Regan G (2015) Pillars of computing. Springer, Cham CrossRef O’Regan G (2015) Pillars of computing. Springer, Cham CrossRef
- The Invention of the Integrated Circuit and the Birth of Silicon Valley
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