It is no easier to define those areas which belong to the North than it is to define those of the South. Certain areas, such as the Baltic, Scandinavia and the British Isles, are clearly northern because of their relative backwardness in and before the sixteenth century. Northern Germany, in particular the Baltic and North Sea littoral, dominated in the Middle Ages by the Hanseatic cities, was equally northern, although the boundary between ‘north’ and ‘south’ within Germany is and always has been uncertain and fluctuating. France north of the Loire undoubtedly belongs to the North, despite the importance of its southern commerce and its production for southern markets in, for instance, Champagne, in the sixteenth century and later. The area between the Loire and the Garonne is an awkward boundary zone, in some ways looking northwards for markets, but also looking to the South for many of its institutions.
Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book
Please log in to get access to this content
To get access to this content you need the following product:
- The Prosperity of the North
- Macmillan Education UK
- Sequence number
- Chapter number