In his classic 1982 study on the institutions of high-speed growth in Japan, Chalmers Johnson drew our attention to the differences between the ‘Japanese developmental state’ and the ‘American regulatory state’ (Johnson, 1982: 10). ‘The two models of the state represent two different orientations toward private economic activities, the regulatory orientation and the developmental orientation, and two different kinds of government-business relationships. The United States is a good example of a state in which the regulatory orientation predominates, where Japan is a good example of a state in which the developmental orientation predominates’ (Johnson, 1982: 19).
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