D. H. Lawrence wrote three versions of his novel in response to the operations of the publishing marketplace. Frieda Lawrence recalled: ‘He wrote practically the whole novel three times, the third version is the published one, but my favorite [sic] was the first draught [sic].’1 Richard Aldington has pinpointed a rival work whose success Lawrence wished to emulate in that third version: ‘From the beginning I have wondered if D. H. Lawrence were not a little hopeful to cash in on the pornographic market of Ulysses, especially as his royalties were declining rapidly.’2 If Lawrence’s motivation in recasting his original novella through its more sexually explicit second and third versions was to make money, then the ‘grey market’, consisting of literary fiction bought in expectation of pornography, could be very profitable without the risk of the author necessarily losing status or credibility. Lady Chatterley’s Lover could remain the purchase of the intellectual avant-garde as well as seekers of mere sexual titillation – what Lawrence himself called ‘the “improper” public’.3 The avant-garde, as both creators and audience, can be defined in terms of minority challenges to majority culture. In the case of Lady Chatterley’s Lover, those challenges were both sexual and – in a manner inextricably linked to that – aesthetic. Indeed, the interlocking of the sexually daring and aesthetically adventurous was characteristic of Modernism.4 However, in challenging the mainstream view of how explicit a writer could be in sexual matters, Lawrence was also aligning himself, however unwillingly, with those writers who did it solely for financial gain by writing for the pornography market.
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