There are many theoretical frameworks that can contribute to being critically reflective. The main aim of this chapter is to detail the four theories that Jan Fook and I have used as the primary underpinning blocks for critical reflection (Fook and Gardner, 2007). Practitioners and their organizations also often have particular theories they use to complement critical reflection, such as a psychodynamic or narrative approach (Stedmon and Dallos, 2009). To illustrate how this might be done, I will also explore how understandings of psychodynamic theory and of spirituality and meaning relate to these theories: where they complement and reinforce them and/or where they differ. Why this particular combination? This reflects my own interests and preferences. Both personally and professionally, I use the theories from critical reflection complemented by psychodynamic and spirituality theory, and find them an effective combination of ideas for thinking about my own practice, in running critical reflection workshops, supervision and critical reflection workshops, and supervision and spirituality workshops of various kinds. In this chapter, I will briefly summarize these approaches, then focus on the four main theories of critical reflection, including psychodynamic and spirituality theory and their contribution.
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